SJIF(2020): 5.702

International Journal of Advanced Research and Publications

High Quality Publications & World Wide Indexing!

Promoting Invention And Innovation In STEM Education By The Integration Of Makerspaces In Zambian Secondary Schools: STEM Teachers’ And Pupils’ Perceptions

Volume 5 - Issue 10, October 2022 Edition
[Download Full Paper]

Moses Kayola Phiri, Vincent Chinyama, Lex Rourke, Jack George Jumbe
Innovation, invention, makerspaces, STEM education.
This study focussed on STEM teachers’ and pupils’ perceptions on the concept of integrating makerspaces in Zambian secondary schools to promote 21st century skills such as innovation. Despite gaining a lot of traction in most developed countries, the concepts of STEM education and makerspaces are either missing or given very little attention in most African countries. Critical case sampling, a type of purposive sampling was used for this study. The target population was selected based on the researchers’ inferences that they might represent a broader trend. Out of all the teachers who handle STEM related subjects on the Copperbelt Province of Zambia, only 53 teachers who attended the ZASE conference were included in the survey. 60 pupils who participated in the provincial JETS fair competition were targeted to represent all the STEM pupils on the Copperbelt Province. For teachers, a structured questionnaire with ordinal scaling questions was used to collect data and a questionnaire with structured ordinal scaling questions and open-ended questions was used to collect data from pupils. Quantitative descriptive statistics and qualitative methods were used for data analysis. The study established that STEM teachers and pupils were limited in their awareness on the concept of makerspaces in STEM education and their experience in making STEM-related products. It further established that STEM teachers and pupils would strongly recommend the integration of makerspaces in Zambian schools to promote the development of invention and innovation skills in learners. They perceived the concept of integrating makerspaces in Zambian secondary schools to be highly beneficial to learners.
[1]. AAAS (2002). The Nepad Road to 2061, Reflections on Science Education in Southern Africa. Paper read at the American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting, Washington, 4 October 2002. aaas.org/programs/project-2061/nepad-road-2061-reflections-science-education-southern-africa

[2]. Bevan, B., Petrich, M., & Wilkinson, K. (2014). Tinkering is serious play. Educational Leadership, 72(4), 28–33

[3]. Black, K. (2010) “Business Statistics: Contemporary Decision Making” 6th edition, John Wiley & Sons

[4]. Blikstein, P., & Krannich, D. (2013). The makers’ movement and FabLabs in education: experiences, technologies, and research. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children, 613–616. ACM.

[5]. Blikstein, P., Kabayadondo, Z., Martin, A., & Fields, D. (2017). An assessment instrument of technological literacies in makerspaces and fablabs. Journal of Engineering Education, 106(1), 149–175. doi:10.1002/jee.20156

[6]. Dougherty, D. (2016). Free to make: How the maker movement is changing our schools, our jobs, and our minds. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.

[7]. European Commission (2018). Commission Staff working document accompanying the document Proposal for a Council Recommendation on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning (No. SWD/2018/014 final-2018/08 (NLE)). https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:52018SC0014&from=EN

[8]. Gomes, P. (2016). Stanford FabLearn’s Paulo Blikstein On the Efficacy of Maker Ed: It’s About Process, Not Products - EdSurge News. EdSurge. Retrieved from https://www.edsurge.com/news/2016-05-26-stanford-fablearn-s-paulo-blikstein-on-the-efficacy-of-maker-ed-it-s-about-process-not-products

[9]. González González, C. S., & Arias, L. G. A. (2018). Maker Movement in Education: Maker Mindset and Makerspaces. In IV Jornadas de HCI (pp. 1–4). Popayam, Colombia.

[10]. Hsu, Y. C., Baldwin, S., & Ching, Y. H. (2017). Learning through making and maker education. TechTrends, 61(6),589–594. doi:10.1007/s1152

[11]. Ismail, Z. (2018). Benefits of STEM Education. K4D Helpdesk Report. Birmingham; International Development Department.

[12]. Kurti, R. S., Kurti, D. L., & Fleming, L. (2014). The Philosophy of Educational Makerspaces Part 1 of Making an Educational Makerspace. Teacher Librarian, 41(5), 8–11.

[13]. Magasu, O., Mutale P., & Gondwe, C. (2022). Implementation of STEM Education in the Zambian Education System: A Failed Project? International Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Studies Website: https://www.ijahss.in/ ISSN(Online): 2582-3647 Volume 4; Issue 3; May-June 2022; Page No. 133-138

[14]. Makhtar, D. (2017). Innovation in Africa. The world Bank Group, Speeches &Transcripts. https://www.wordbank.org/en/news/speech/2017/11/30/innovation-in-africa

[15]. Martin, L. (2015). The promise of the maker movement for education. Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research, 5(1), 30–39. doi:10.7771/2157-9288.1099

[16]. Martinez, S. L., & Stager, G. (2013). Invent to learn: making, tinkering, and engineering in the classroom: Constructing Modern Knowledge Press.

[17]. Mayring, P. (2000). Qualitative content analysis. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 1(2), 20. Retrieved fromhttp://

[18]. Ministry of Education, Science, Vocation Training and Early Education. Education. (2013). Zambia Education Curriculum Framework. Lusaka: Curriculum Development Centre.

[19]. Mushi, P.A. K. (2009). History of Education in Tanzania. Dar-es-Salaam University Press.

[20]. Namayanga, C.K. & Banda, B. (2021). STEM Curriculum Development, Implementation and Assessment Challenges of Implementing STEM Education in Africa: Experiences of Teacher-Curriculum Reflux in Basic School Science, National Science Centre, Lusaka, Zambia.
[21]. Olamide, A. (2022). The Reality of STEM Education in Africa (Present, Future and Challenges). STEM Education. getbundi.com/the-reality-of-stem-education-in-africa-present-future-and-challenges/

[22]. Oliver, K. (2016a). Professional development considerations for makerspace leaders, part one: Addressing ‘‘what?” and ‘‘why? TechTrends, 60(2), 160–166. doi:10.1007/s11528-016-0028-5

[23]. Oliver, K. (2016b). Professional development considerations for makerspace leaders, part two: Addressing “how? TechTrends, 60(3), 211–217. doi:10.1007/s11528-016-0050-7

[24]. Papert, S. (1991). Situating constructionism. In S. Papert & I. Harel (Eds.), Constructionism (pp. 1–12). Cambridge,MA: MIT Press.

[25]. Peppler, K., & Bender, S. (2013). Maker movement spreads innovation one project at a time. Phi Delta Kappan,95(3), 22–27. doi:10.1177/003172171309500306f

[26]. Phiri, K.M., & Jumbe, G.J. (2019). "Promoting Student Engagement in Soft Skills Practices with Science News Media in Physics Education-a case study of Chiwala Technical Secondary School in Zambia", International Journal of Advanced Research and publications (IJARP), publishing/oct2019.html, volume 3-issue 10, October 2019 Edition, 31-63http://www.ijarp.org/online-papers

[27]. Ramli, A. A., Ibrahim, N. H., Surif, J., Bunyamin, M. A. H., Jamaluddin, R., & Abdullah, N. (2017). Teachers? readiness in teaching stem education. Man in India, 97(13), 343-350.

[28]. Schad, M. & Jones, W.M. (2020). The Maker Movement and Education: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Journal of Research on Technology in education, 52(1), 65-78 doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2019.1688739.