Prevalence Of Nematode (Contracaecum) And Cestode (Ligula Intestinalis) Parasites Infection In Two Fish Species At Lake Tana
Volume 2 - Issue 3, March 2018 Edition
[Download Full Paper]
Necho Ageze, Awake Menzir
Contracaecum, fish, Lake Tana, Ligula intestinalis, prevalence, small barbus Tilapia
A cross sectional study was conducted from November, 2011-April, 2012 in two species of fish from Southern Gulf of Lake Tana to determine the prevalence of Contracaecum and Ligula intestinalis parasite infecting fish. A total of 400 fish comprising of 200 (49.5%) Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus) were caught by gill nets of variable size and 200 (22.5%) small barbus were caught by the help of scup net. Of all fish examined, 161 (40.25%) were found to harbor Contracecum helminth parasite on both fish species. A significantly higher infection was found in Tilapia nilotica fish species (p<0.05). There was no significance variation (p>0.05) revealed in the occurrence infections between different size categories in both fish species but there was a tendency of increasing infection with body length in large Tilapia nilotica. The study demonstrated that Contracecum from pericardial cavity was the most prevalent nematode with prevalence of (49.5%) and (31%) in Tilapia nilotica and small barbus respectively. Ligula intestinalis was detected only in small barbus fish species and the prevalence is 22.5%. 8 (4.97%) small barbus fish were found to harbor both Ligula intestinalis and Contracaecum helminthes parasite. Even though no statistical significance difference were observed between the two sex groups in each fish species, 64 (39.75%) males and 89(55.28%) female were infected by Contracecum parasites. From results of the study it was concluded that the parasite was found either free and /or encysted in the pericardial cavity. On average of 4 larvae of Contracecum and a maximum of 3 worms of Ligula intestinalis per fish were collected. The observed infection rates are predominantly related on the distribution of piscivorours birds which are more abundant in area where there are high fishing activities and increase number of discarded filleted wastes.
 Alexander, A. (2007): Diversity of Helminthes Parasite on Major Economically Important Fish Types of Lake Tana. Moscow, Russia, pp.7.
 Amare, T. (1986): Parasites of Fish from Lake Hawassa and Chamo: DVM thesis; Addis Ababa university, faculty of veterinary medicine, Ethiopia.
 Bergmann, G.T., and Motta, P.J.(2004): Infection by Anisakid Nematode Contracaecum Species in the Mayan Cichlid Fish Cichlasoma (nandopsis) Urophtalmus. Jurnal paristol 90(2), American society of parasitologists, Filorida, pp.405-07.
 Boomker, J. (1982): Parasites of African fresh water fish. Some nematodes of the cat fish on derstepoort. Journal of veterinary research, No 49(1), pub Med-gov, USA, 49:pp.41-51.
 DACA, (2006): Standard Treatment Guideline for Veterinary Practice. 5th ed. Drug Administration and Control Authority of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp. 357-58.
 Dejen, E. (1995): A Length Base Simulation Model to Evaluate Management Option in the multi-species gillnet fishery of Lake Tana, Ethiopia. DVM thesis, Landbouw universty Wagenigen Netherlands.
 Dick, T.A. and Choudhury, A. (1999): Fish Disease and Disorders; Protozoan and Metazoan Infections, 2nd ed. CABI Puplishing, Canada, pp.415-20.
 Eshete, D. (2003): Dynamic of Cestode infection and its effect on small pelagic barbus (Barbus humilus and Barbus tanapelagicus); in: Ecology and potential for fisher of the small barbus (cyprinidae, Teleostei) of Lake Tana, Ethiopia.PhD thesis, Agriculture university, Wageningen, the Netherlands,pp. 180.
 Eshetu, Y., Mulualem, E., (2003): Parasites of Fish at Lake Tana, SINET, Ethiop. J.sci. 20 (1); pp. 21-36.
 Hart, P.J.B. and Reynolds, J.D. (2002): Handbooks if Fish Biology and Fisheries. Vol-1.Black Well Puplishing,UK, pp.51, 359, 376.
 Ismen, A. and Bingel, F. (1999): Nematode infection in the whiting Marsangius euxinus off Turkish coast of the black sea. Fish, Res. 42 Pp.183-89.
 Landsberg, J. (1989): Parasites and Associated Disease of Fish in Warm water Culture with Special Emphasis on Intensification, CRC press.Inc.Baco Raton, USA p.195.
 Lester, R.J. (1998): Fish Disease, Refresher Course for Veterinarians Proceeding 106 University of Sydney, pp.115-24.
 Lewis, G.W. (1991): Anglerâ€™s Guide to Fish Disease and Parasite, Athens, Cooperative Extension Service: pp.722-30.
 Marcogliese, D.J. (2001): Parasites of Fishes in Fresh Water, EMAN, Canada.
 Mbahinzireki, G.B. (1980): Observation on Some Parasites of Bagrus Docmac of Lake Victoria. Hydrobiologia, pp.273-80.
 Nagelkerke, L.A. and Sibbing, F.A. (1996): Reproductive Segregation Among The Large Barbus (barbus intermiduius complex) of Lake Tana, Ethiopia Fish Biology, vol. 49, pp.1251.
 Noga,E.J. (1996): Fish Disease, Diagnosis and treatment. Amazon Inc., New York, pp. 76.
 Orecchia, P., Paggi, L., Mattiucci, S., Smith, J.W., Nascetti, G. and Bullimi,L. (1986): Electrophetic Identification of Larval and Adults of Anisakis (Ascaridia, anisakidae). Journals oj Helminthology, Vol-60, Cambridge university Press, pp.338-9.
 Paperna, I. (1980): Parasites, Infections and Disease of Fish in Africa, CIFA. Tech, pages 7:216 Pup. Dubuque. Lowa.
 Paperna, I. (2001): Fish Disease and Disorders, Vol.1 Protozoan and metazoan infections, CABI publishing, Canada, pp.332-72.
 Post, G. (1987): Text Book of Fish Health. Revised and Expanded Edition. T.F.H. Puplication, Inc, USA, pp.18.
 Randy White: How do I know if I had a sick fish? Available at: http//aquanic.org/publicat/state/il-in/ces/white.pdf.
 Roberts, R.J. (2001): Fish Pathology, 3rd ed. Technical Director, Landa catches Ltd, Scotland, pp.270-300.
 Roy, P.E. (2002): Nematode (round worm) Infection in Fish, 2nd ed. Florida, IFAS, PP.1-10.
 Tefera, W. (1990): Parasites of Fish From Lake Tana, DVM thesis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
 Thrusfield, (2005): Veterinary Epidemiology 2nd ed. Blackwell sciences, United Kingdom pp.178-98.
 Tombi, J. and Bilong, C.F. (1971): Distribution of Gill Parasite of Fresh Water Fish Barbus Martorelli Roman. Revue Elev.med vet.plays trop, pp.71-76.
 Tudorancea, C., Zinabu, G. and Elias, D. (1999): Limnology in Developing Countries, Vol.2, INDIA, International Scientific Puplication, pp. 63 and 118.
 Urquhart, G.M., Armour, J., Duncan, J.L., Jeaning, F.W. (1996): Veterinary Parasitology 2nd ed. Scotland. University of Glasgow, pp. 120.
 Woo, K.T. (1999): Fish Disease and Disorders, volume 1, CABI, UK, pp. 415-22.
 World Book Encyclopedia, (2001): Volume 7, C1 Chicago Ascot Fetzer Company, pp.150-80.
 Wudneh, T. (1998): Biology and Management of Fish Stock in Bahir Dar Gulf, Lake Tana, Ethiopia. Ph.D thesis,Wagenigen Agricultural University.
 Yewubdar, G. (2009):
 Investigation on the occurrence of helminthes parasite in three fish species from Koka reservoir. DVM thesis, Hawassa, Ethiopia.
 Yimer, E. and Enyew, M. (2003): Parasites of Fish at Lake Tana. Ethioppia. SINET Ethiopian Journal Science, Vol-26, No 1, Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp. 31-6.
 Zhokhov, A.E., Mironovsky, A.N., Miretskaya, D.A. (2007): Methods of the Complete Parasitological Dissection of Fish, JERBE, Moscow- Addis Ababa, pp.1-12.