Reward And Employee Retention In Non Governmental Organizations: A Comparative Study Of Plan International And Save The Children By
Volume 4 - Issue 5, May 2020 Edition
[Download Full Paper]
Nakiyimba Christine, Ndejje University; Emuron Lydia, Kampala International University; Auno Stella Hope, Kampala International University.
Employee Reward, Retention, Non Governmental Organisations
Despite apparent high remuneration by Non-Governmental Organisations, they still experience retention challenges of key talent. This study examined the relationship between rewards and employee retention in Non-Governmental Organisations. Specifically, it sought to establish the different rewards administered as well as the relationship between rewards and employee retention using Plan International and Save the Children, both operating in Uganda. A cross-sectional comparative study design using both quantitative and qualitative approaches was employed. Questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussions sourced the information. Quantitative and qualitative data was analysed using Pearson’s coefficient, ANOVA, content, logic and inference methods respectively. Results showed a positive correlation between rewards and employee retention in NGOs. The NGOs administered a reasonable base pay, some allowances and benefits. There however was lack of job evaluation, inflexible reward policies, rigid pay structures and consequently, extra effort from high performers was not catered for. It was recommended that NGOs carry out Job evaluation and adopt flexible reward policies to incorporate contingency pay and bonuses to cater for the extra effort put in by high performers.
. Abassi, S.M & Hollman, K.W. (2000). Turnover: The Real Bottom Line. London: Manage Pub. Press.
. American Management Association (2001). Survey Finds Cash Not The Best Retention Tool. Focus, 76, (6) 4.
. Amin, E.M. (2005). Social Science Research: Conception, Methodology and Analysis. Kampala: Makerere University Printery.
. Armstrong, M. & Brown, D. (2006). Strategic Reward. London: Kogan Page.
. Armstrong, M. (2007). A Handbook of Employee Rewards Management and Practices. (2nd ed). Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited.
. Armstrong. M. (2009). A Handbook of Employee Rewards Management and Practices. (11th ed). Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited.
. Arnold, E. (2005). Managing Human Resources to Improve Employee Retention. The Health Care Manager, 24 (2), 132-140.
. Barton, G.M. (2002). Recognition at Work. Scottsdale: World at Work.
. Bevan, S. (2003). Non-Pay Reward and Recognition. Presentation for the Work Foundation, August 2003.
. Berry, D. C. (2007). Retaining Employees. A Survey Carried Out by Western Compensation and Benefits Consultants (WCBC). Suit 2000 1188 West Georgia Street.
. Brown, D. & Armstrong, M. (1999). Paying for Contribution: Real Performance-Related Pay Strategies. London: Konan Page.
. Cappelli, P. (2001). A market-Driven Approach to Retaining Talent: Harvard Business Review on Finding and Keeping the Best People. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
. Carraher, R. Gibson, A & Bickley R. (2006). Compensation in the Baltic and the USA, Baltic Journal of Management, 1, 7-23.
. CIPD, (2005). Employee Turnover and Retention. Retrieved on February 10, 2013, from
. Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) (2006). Employee Turnover and Retention. Retrieved on February 13, 2013, from www.cipd.co.uk/subjects/recruitment/retention/
. Chaminade, B. (2007). A Retention Checklist: How Do You Rate? Retrieved on March 28, 2013 from www.humanresourcemanagize.co.au.
. Chew, Y. T. (2005). Achieving Organizational Prosperity through Employee Motivation and Retention: A Comparative Study of Strategic HRM Practices in Malaysian Institutions, Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, 13(2), 87-104.
. De Vos Ans, Meganck A., & Buyens, D. (2008). A Working Paper On the “The Role of the Psychological Contract in Retention Management. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
. Dhar, R.L. (2008). Strategic Human Resource Management (1st ed). New Delhi: Naraina.
. Dibble, S. (1999). Keeping Your Valuable Employees – Retention Strategies for Your Organization’s Most Important Resource. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Inc.
. Deloitte, (2012). Top Five Global Employer Rewards Priorities Survey. Retrieved on January 10, 2013, from http://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-UnitedStates/Local%20Assets/Documents/ Consulting /us_cons_ Top Five Rewards Survey2013_030813.pdf
. Earle, H.A. (2003). Building a Workplace Of Choice: Using The Work Environment To Attract And Retain Employees. Journal of Facilities Management, 2 (3), 244-257.
. Employee Reward and Recognition Systems (2013). Percentages, type, benefits, cost, Reward vs. recognition. Retrieved on (January 10, 2013) from the world wide web: http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/small/Di-Eq/Employee-Reward-and-Recognition-Systems.html#ixzz25cNcRZlb
. Gordon, E.E (2009). Winning the Global Talent Showdown. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
. Griffeth, R. Hom P.W., Fink L.S, Cohen, D.J. (2003). Comparative Tests of Multivariate Models of Recruiting Sources Effects. Manage, 23, (1): 19-36.
. Hannay, M. & Northan, M. (2000). Low-Cost Strategies for Employee Retention. Compensation and Benefits Review, 32, (65), 65-72.
. Hay Group (2009). Annual Survey of Employee Benefits. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
. Herman (2005). HR Managers as Employee-Retention Specialists. Employment Relations Today, 32, (2), 1-7.
. Hewitt, A. (2006). Asia Countries to Battle Rising Attrition Rates. Retrieved on January 25, 2013, from www.hewittassociates.com/mtl/ap.
. Higginbottom, H. (2001). ‘Flexible Benefits Top of Employee Wish List’. Personnel Today Magazine. February Issue.
. Hiltrop, Jean-Marie. (1999). Human Resource Practices to Attract and Retain Talent. European Management Journal, 17, (4), 422-430.
. HRMAU, (2009). Human Resource Managers Association of Uganda reports. Retrieved on (January 29, 2009) from the world wide web: http://www.achieveny.org/index.php.
. Hytter, A. (2007). Retention strategies in France and Sweden. The Irish Journal of Management, 28, (1), 59-79.
. Iyayi FIO (2002). Decision-Making in Underdeveloped Organizations: An Exploratory Investigation. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
. Johnson, M. (2000). Winning the People Wars, Talent And The Battle For Human Capital. London: Copyright Licensing Agency.
. Kaye, B. & Jordan, E. (1999). Love ‘em or lose ‘em – Getting good people to stay. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.
. Kinnear L, Sutherland M (2001). Money is Fine, But What Is the Bottom-Line? J. South Afr. Institute People Management, 19 (1), 15-18.
. Kyriakidou, O., & Ozbilgin, M. (2004). Individuals, Organizations and Careers: A relational Perspective. Career Development International, 9, (1), 7-11.
. Kochanski, J., Ledford, G. (2001). How to keep me – Retaining Technical Professionals. Research, Technology Management. Industrial Research Institute, 44, (3), 8-16.
. Kreisman, B. J. (2002). Identification of the Drivers of Employee Dissatisfaction And Turnover. Austin, TX: University of Texas.
. Langley, A. (2008). Employee Reward Structures (3rd ed). London: Spiramus Press Ltd.
. Larson, S.A., & Hewitt, A.S. (2005). Staff Recruitment, Retention And Training Strategies For Community Human Service Organizations. Baltimore: Paul H. Brooks publishing company.
. Lawler, E.E. (2000). Pay for Performance: Making It Work. London: Sage.
. Lawler, E.E. (2003). Treat People Right. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc.
. Lee, G.J. (2006). Recruitment Sources and Employee Turnover: A South African Test Of Realism & Job-Fit Hypotheses. Johannesburg, University of Wits.
. Maicibi, N.A. (2007). Human Resource Management Success. The Tips for HRM Theorists and Practitioners. Makerere University Printery, Kampala.
. McCartney, C., & Holbeche, L. (2003). The Management Agenda. New York: Roffey Park Research.
. McQuery L. (2017). Types of financial Rewards and Incentives. https://bizfluent.com/info-8112045-types-financial-rewards-incentives.html
. Morgan, H.J. (2008). Keeping Your Talent. Identifying and Retaining Your Star Keys. Strategic Direction, 24, (9), 6-8.
. Mugenda, O.M. & Mugenda, A.G. (1999). Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Nairobi: Acts Press.
. O'Leary, Z. (2004). The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage.
. Osborn-Jones, T. (2001). ‘Managing Talent - Exploring The New Psychological Contract’, in Borrett S (ed.), Attracting and Retaining People with New Working Practices, Henley Management College.
. Phillip, J.J. & Adele, O.C. (2003). Managing Employee Retention. A Strategic Accountability Approach. Oxford: Oxford.
. Riley, B.K. (2005). Employee Retention: An Empirical study of Direct Care Employees at ACHIEVE. New York: Binghamton University.
. Rodriguez, R. (2008). Learning’s Impact on Talent Flow. London: Spiramus Press Ltd.
. Sekaran, K. (2001).Business Research Methods. USA: Oxford University Press. Retrieved on (February 28, 2013) from the world wide web: http://ramayah.com/ATP201/Intro.pdf
. Schmidt, E. (2010). Employee Retention: Is Higher Pay The Best Way To Retain Employees? Retrieved on 14th September, 2012, from http://www.sheilamargolis.com/2010/11/10/is-higher-pay-the-best-way-to-retain-employees.
. Schuster. Z JR., (2001). Winning the Talent Game: Total Rewards and The Better Workforce Deal. Compensation and Benefits Management. Summer Issue, 33-39.
. Schuster. Z JR., (2004). Pay people right! Breakthrough Reward Strategies to Create Great Companies, Jossey-Bass: Los Angeles.
. SumHR, (2016). Effective Employee Retention Strategies. https://www.sumhr.com/effective-employee-retention-strategies-company-follow/
. Worx, S.D. (2008). SD Worx brengt beweging op de Belgische. SD Worx makes a cartography of the movement on the Belgian labour market. Retrieved on (January, 2, 2013) from the world wide web: www.sd.be/site/website/be/nl/1000A/ 10Z00C/10000P_400.htm?key=854e8a44-cf3c-43d8-8c91-4896debd824b.
. Silbert, L.T., (2005). The Effect of Tangible Rewards on Perceived Organizational Support, Management Sciences. Retrieved on 10 March, 2013, from uwspace.uwaterloo.ca/bitstream/10012/872/1/Isilbert2005.pdf.
. Silverman, M. (2004). Non Financial Recognition: The Most Effective Of Rewards. London: Institute for Employment Studies, UK.
. Steel, R.P., Griffeth, R. W., & Hom, P.W. (2002). Practical Retention Policy for the Practical Manager. Academy of Management Executive, 18, (2), 149-169.
. Spector, P.E. (2008). Industrial and Organizational Behavior, (5th ed). Wiley: Hoboken, NJ.
. Tang, T.L.P., Kim, J. K., & Tang, D.S.H (2000). Does Attitude Towards Money Moderate The Relationship Between Intrinsic Job Satisfaction and Voluntary Turnover? Human Relations, 53, (2), 213-245.
. Tropman John E (2001). The Compensation Solution: How to Develop an Employee-Driven Rewards System. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
. WorldatWork, (2006). Employee Recognition Survey. Retrieved on 10 January, 2013, from www. Worldatwork.org.
. WorldatWork, (2006). Total Rewards: From Strategy to Implementation. WorldatWork, Scottsdale, AZ.
. WorldatWork, (2007). Total Rewards Survey. Retrieved on (10 January, 2013) from the world web wide: www. Worldatwork.org.
. Yamane, T. (1967). Statistics. An introductory Analysis (2nd ed), New York: Harper and Row.
. Zingheim, P.K & Schuster, J.R.(2000). Pay people right! Break through Reward Strategies to Create Great Companies. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.