Paper Details: Assessment Of Heavy Metals In Amaranthus Spinosus, Kigali, Rwanda.
Volume 3 - Issue 10, October 2019 Edition
[Download Full Paper]
Protogene Hakizimana, Abias Maniragaba, Francois Xavier Nshimiyimana
Amaranthus Spinosus, heavy metal, soil, leave
Spiny amaranths “Amaranthus spinosus” is a common leafy vegetable and is locally called dodo. It is grown both in wet and dry seasons and harvested between 30-40 days after planting. Because of its nutritional importance and demand but also less expensive it is widely cultivated especially in Kigali, Rwanda. The level of heavy metals in soil and leaf samples of Amaranthus spinosus grown in seven sites were performed by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission. The objective of study was to assess the level of heavy metals in soil and in leaves of amaranthus spinosus. The heavy metals that were assessed are: Manganese (Mn); Zinc (Zn); Copper (Cu); Cadmium (Cd); Iron (Fe); Nickel (Ni) and Lead (Pb). The results obtained revealed that their concentrations in soil ranged between : Mn ( 45.3-243.5); Zn (37.8-56.7) ; Cu (5.3-44.6); Cd (0.09-0.21); Fe (1789-2896); Ni (9.6-23.8) and in the leaves the concentration of some heavy metals are ranged between: Mn (0.22-0.56); Zn (0.89-1.52); Cu (0.12-0.34); Fe (66.67-92,7); Ni (0.04-3.12) in mg/kg from all sites. The Lead (Pb) was not detected in soil and in leaves samples, and cadmium “Cd” is not detected in leaves samples. The values of all heavy metals analyzed from in whole samples in present sites were under the threshold values established by European organization and World Health Organization (WHO for food and vegetables). The results are an indication that the spiny amaranths leaves had the potential to be used as source of nutrients in alleviating macro- and micro- nutrient deficiencies. The study will bring awareness to consumers of these items about what they are taking and the health implication as well as assist them and the farmers in taking necessary precautions towards proper care of their fruits and vegetables before consumption. This will indeed be a good way of reducing substantial quantity of contaminants from getting to the human body thereby avoiding health problems, with its attendant positive economic implications.
 A. Kabata-Pendias, A. Duka,( 1991), Trace metal contents of Taraxacum officinale as a convenient environmental indicator, Envrion, Geochem, Health, , 13:2, 108 – 113.
 Asaolu SS, Adefemi SO, Onipede AF.( 2005), Interdependecy of some macro and micro metals in soil of Imo State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied and Environmetal Science,1:79- 82.
 Asemave K., Ubwa S.T., Anhwange B.A., Gbaamende A.G.(2012) , Comparative evaluation of some metals inpalm oil. Inter. J. of Mod. Chem. 1, (2) 28.
 Ayres, R U., Ayres, L W., (1994), Consumptive uses and losses of toxic heavy metals in the United Sates, 1880-1980.
 Chinyere GC , Madu Fu; (2015), physical characteristics and heavy metals in edible vegetables .International Research Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology (2015),2(2):014-027.
 Diaconu et al. (2009), Assessment of some heavy metals in soils, drinking water ,medicinal plants and their liquid extracts.
 Duran, A., Tuzen, M. and Soylak, M. (2008),Trace element levels in some dried fruit samples fromTurkey. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 59: 581-589.
 Enviromental Agency.(2007), Environmental concentrations of heavy metals in U.K. soil and herbage.U.K. Soil and Herbage Pollutant Survey. 7, Bristol.
 Etale A. (2012), industrial pollution and food safety in Kigali, Rwanda.
 EU.(2002), The Commission of the European Communities: Commission regulation, (EC) No amending regulation (EC) No. 446/2001 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in food stuff in order to potect public health. Official Journal of the European Communities 7.2.2002, L37/5 – L37/6.
 European Commission EC (1986), European Commission Office for Official publications of the European Communities; Luxembourg; Council Directive 66/278/EEC on the protection of environment and in particular of soil, when sewage sludge is used in agriculture.
 Eze S, Hilary M.,( 2008) Evaluation of heavy metals pollution of soils around the derelict Enyigba Mines and their sources. Inter. Journal of applied environmental science. 13(3):4
 Fakayode SO, Olu-Owolabi BI. (2003), Heavy metal contamination of roadside topsoil in Osogbo, Nigeria: Its relationship to traffic density and proximity to highways. Environmental Geology; 44:150-157.
 Francois Xavier Nshimiyimana et al, (2016) , Seasonal influence and risk assessment of heavy metals in ground water , Arjaat village, Morocco.
 Gupta K, Wagle DS. (1998), Nutritional and antinutritional factors of green leafy vegetables.J Agric Food Chem.
 Harami MA, Wofen BM, Ara BU, Modu-Kolo A. (2004) Heavy metal concentrations in industrial estate in Bauchi, Bauchi State. Proceedings of the 27th International Conference of the Chemical Society of Nigeria.;P:404-407.
 Jang YC, Townsend TG, Bitton G.( 2002), Leaching of Arsenic, chromium and copper in acontaminated soil at a wood preserving site. Bull. Environ. Contain. Toxicoh 69.
 Khan, S., Cao, Q., Zheng, Y. M., Huang, Y. Z. and Zhu, Y. G. (2008), Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China. Environmental Pollution, 152, 686-692.
 Lacatusu R. (2000), Appraising levels of soil contamination and pollution with heavy metals. European Soil Bureau, Research No.4.
 Linton Hazarika, Ranjan Kumar Bharali , Smriti S. Phukana, K G Bhattacharyya.(2016), Assessment of vegetables and soils for some heavy metals from irrigated farmlands irrigated with industrial effluents of hpc, nagaon, assam (india).Octa Journal of Environment Research.
 Marshall .(2004),Enhancing food chain integrity: Quality assurance mechanism for air pollution impacts on fruits and vegetables systems. Crop Post Harvest Program, Final Technical Report (R7530)
 Minkina T., Mandzhieva S., Chapligin V., Suchkova S., Bauier T. (2014), Accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in plants within the technogenesis zone. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 13, 1307-1315
 Naser, H.M., Sultana, S., Mahmud, N.U., Gomes, R. and Noor, S. (2011), Heavy Metal Levels in Vegetables with Growth Stage and Plant Species Variations. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research, 36, 563-574.
 Okoye BCO. ( 1992), Nutrients and selected chemical analysis in the Lagos Lagoon surface waters. Intern. J. Environ.Studies.38:131-135.
 Peris M, Recatala I, Mico C, Sanchez R, Sanchez J.( 2008), Increasing the knowledge of metal contents and sources in agricultural soils of the European Mediterranean region,Water Air Soil Pollut.;192:25-37.
 Radwan, M.A. and Salama, A.K. (2006), Market basket survey for some heavy metals in Egyptian fruits and vegetables. Food Chem. Toxicol., 44: 1273-1278.
 Thompson, H.C. and Kelly, W.C . (1990), Vegetable Crops. 5th Edition., McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi.
 Vazhenin IG.( 1987), Methodical Recommendations for observation and Mapping of soil polluted in different degree by Industrial wastes. Moscon (in Russian).
 Wang X, Sato T, Xing B, Tao S (2005), Health risks of heavy metals to the general public in Tianjin, China via consumption of vegetables and fish. Sci Total Environ 350: 28-37.
 WHO.(1993),WHO's Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality.Geneva,World Health Organization.
 World Health Organization . (1993), Standard maxima for metals in Agricultural soils.
 WHO.(2002), guidelines for assessing quality of herbal medicines with reference to contaminants and residues.
 Yetimoglu EK, Ercan O. (2007), Heavy metal concentration in street dust of Istabul (Pendic to levent) E-5 Highway. Annali di chemical.;P:227-235.
 Yusuf AA, Arowolo TA, Bamgbose, O. (2003), Cadmium, copper and nickel levels in vegetable from industrial and residential areas of Lagos City, Nigeria. Food Chem Toxicol 41: 375- 3784.