SJIF(2020): 5.702

International Journal of Advanced Research and Publications

High Quality Publications & World Wide Indexing!

Towards A Specialist System To Support The Calibration Process Of Engine Management Systems Over Upcoming Technologies To Reduce Overall Exhaust Emissions

Volume 2 - Issue 8, August 2018 Edition
[Download Full Paper]

Bruno Sérgio Adamczyk, Olício da Silva Junior
Emissions regulamentation, homologation cycles, engine calibration, upcoming technologies.
Each year new strict regulations and homologations cycles have been released and in order to fulfill these rules, new technologies appeared as a solution for better engine efficiency and reduction of overall emissions; however, only cost efficient technologies are applied on large scale production, those technologies have to be studied because it represents most of the world fleet. New technologies in tandem with more restrictive regulations increase the complexity over the engine calibration process. Calibration is the key to engine control and mistakes can lead to consequences that represent safety risks, environmental treats and enormous costs for vehicle manufactures. As the companies thrive for a shorter development time to compete on the automotive market, the calibration process complexity demands time, being more expensive and challenging over time. Arguments are given in order to explain the necessity for an engine calibration specialist system capable of fully representing the knowledge e cross domains evolved on the process while dealing with cross requirements and necessary interoperability to help the addition of new technologies.
[1] Read “State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions” at NAP.edu.United States Environmental chapter 4 Co-evolution of Technology and Emissions Standards: State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions. DOI: 10.17226/11586. [Online]. Available at: https://www.nap.edu/read/11586/chapter/6.[Accessed: Jun. 23, 2018].

[2] A. Faiz, C.S. Weaver, M. P. Walsh, “Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles”, Standards and technologies ISBN 0-8213-3444-1, TL214.P6F35, 1996.

[3] R. K. Jurgen, “Electronic Engine Control Technologies, 2nd Edition PT-110”, SAE International, ISBN: 0-7680-1339-9, Volume: Ed2, Issue Number: PT-110, Jan., 2007.

[4] C. Laroo, “Light-Duty Tier III PM Test Procedure Changes and Future PM Measurement Challenges,” United States Environmental Protection Agency, EPA Web Archive. [Online]. Available at: https://archive. epa.gov/epa/sites/production/files/2015-11/documents/laroo.pdf .[Accessed: Jun. 23, 2018].

[5] C. Laroo, “Light-Duty Tier III PM Test Procedure Changes and Future PM Measurement Challenges,” United States Environmental Protection Agency, EPA Web Archive. [Online]. Available at: https://archive. epa.gov/epa/sites/production/files/2015-11/documents/laroo.pdf .[Accessed: Jun. 23, 2018].

[6] “Regulation (EC) no 715/2007 of The European Parliament and of the Council”, Official Journal of the European Union. [Online]. Available at:https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2007:171:0001:0016:EN:PDF.[Accessed: Jan. 19, 2018].

[7] “Limits and measurement methods for emissions from light-duty vehicles CHINA 6”, Ministry of Ecology and Environment of People`s Republic of China. [Online]. Available at: http://kjs.mep.gov.cn/hjbhbz/bzwb/dqhjbh/dqydywrwpfbz/201612/t20161223_369476.shtml. [Accessed: Aug. 25, 2018].

[8] “Proconve P7 - 02000.000542/2008-73”, Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente – CONAMA. [Online]. Available at: http://www.mma.gov.br/port/ conama/ processo.cfm?processo=02000.000542/2008-73. [Accessed: Aug. 16, 2018].

[9] “India: Cars and Light Trucks”, DieselNet - Emission Standards. [Online]. Available: https://www.dieselnet .com/standards/in/ld.php#cars. [Accessed: Aug. 15, 2018].

[10] J. Gallus, U. Kirchner, R. Vogt and T. Benter. Impact of driving style and road grade on gaseous exhaust emissions of passenger vehicles measured by a Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS). Elsevier on Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, vol. 52, part A, pp. 215-226, 2016.

[11] P. Mock/The International Council on Clean Transportation, 2017,Theicct/Real-Driving Emissions test procedure for exhaust gas pollutant emissions of cars and light commercial vehicles in Europe, Accessed .[Online]. Available at: https://www.theicct.org/publications/real-driving-emissions-test-procedure-exhaust-gas-pollutant-emissions-cars-and-light. [Accessed: Aug. 16, 2018].

[12] MLA 8th Edition, 2014, Galegroup/European Report - Road vehicles : regulations on reduction of pollutant emissions updated. [Online]. Available at: http://link.galegroup.com/apps/oc/A357739660/AONE?u=puc_pr&sid=AONE&xid=5ed39e9c. [Accessed: Aug. 18, 2018].

[13] M. Kousoulidou, G. Fontaras, L. Ntziachristos, P. Bonnel, Z. Samaras and P. Dilara. Use of portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) for the development and validation of passenger car emission factors. Elsevier on Atmospheric Environment, vol. 64, pp. 329-338, 2013.

[14] H. Maa, F. Balthasar, N. Tait, X. R. Palou and A. Harrison. A new comparison between the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of battery electric vehicles and internal combustion vehicles. Elsevier on Energy Policy, vol. 44, pp. 160-173, 2012.

[15] K.C. Taylor, Automobile Catalytic Converters. Elsevier on Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, Stud. Surf. Sci. Catal. 30, 97–116. DOI: 10.1016/S0167-2991(09) 60416-X, 1987.

[16] V. Y. Prikhodko, J. E. Parks, J. A. Pihl, T. J. Toops, “Passive SCR for lean gasoline NOX control: Engine-based strategies to minimize fuel penalty associated with catalytic NH3generation” Elsevier on Catalysis Today 267, 202–209, 2016.

[17] S.C. Davis, S.W. Diegel, R.G. Boundy, Transportation Energy Data Book: 34edition, 2015 [Online]. Available at: http://cta.ornl.gov/data/index.shtml. [Accessed: Aug. 19, 2018].

[18] A. Herman, M. Wu, D. Cabush, M. Shost, Model based control of scr dosing and obd strategies with feedback from nh3 sensors. Tech. Pap. 2009-01-0911, SAE, 2009.

[19] M.F. Hsieh, J. Wang, Nonlinear observer designs for diesel engine selective catalytic reduction (SCR) ammonia coverage ratio estimation. In: Decision and Control, 2009 held jointly with the 2009 28th Chinese Control Conference. CDC/CCC 2009. Proceedings of the 48th IEEE Conference on, pp. 6596–6601, 2009.

[20] F. Zhao, M.-C. Lai and D.L. Harrington. Automotive spark-ignited direct-injection gasoline engines. Elsevier on Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, vol. 25, iss. 5, pp. 437-562, 1999.

[21] National Research Council, 2011,Nap/Assessment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles. [Online]. Available at: https://www.nap.edu/catalog/12924/assessment-of-fuel-economy-technologies-for-light-duty-vehicles. [Accessed: Aug. 20, 2018].

[22] L. Bo, L. Yunqing and W. Defu. Fuel Spray Dynamic Characteristics of GDI High Pressure Injection System. Springer on Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering, vol. 25, iss. 2, pp 355-361, 2012.

[23] B. Lecointe & G. Monnier. Downsizing a Gasoline Engine Using Turbocharging with Direct Injection. SAE Technical Paper, doi. 10.4271/2003-01-0542, 2003.

[24] P. Leduc, B. Dubar, A. Ranini1 and G. Monnier. Downsizing of Gasoline Engine: An Efficient Way to Reduce CO2 Emissions. Oil & Gas Science and Technology, vol. 58, pp. 115-127, 2003.

[25] J. Stokes, T. Lake and R. Osborne. A Gasoline Engine Concept for Improved Fuel Economy -The Lean Boost System. SAE Technical Paper, doi. 10.4271/2000-01-2902, 2000.

[26] M.G.R. Neame, D.P. Gardiner, R.W. Mallory, V.K. Rao, M.F. Bardon and V. Batista. Improving the Fuel Economy of Stoichiometrically Fuelled S.I. Engines by Means of EGR and Enhanced Ignition - A Comparison of Gasoline, Methanol and Natural Gas. SAE Technical Paper, no. 952376, doi. 10.4271/952376, 1995.

[27] E. Galloni, G. Fontana and R. Palmaccio. Numerical analyses of EGR techniques in a turbocharged spark-ignition engine. Elsevier on Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 39, pp. 95-104, 2012.

[28] M. Mosburger, J. Fuschetto, D. Assanis, Z. Filipi and H. McKee. Impact of High Sulfur Military JP-8 Fuel on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine EGR Cooler Condensate. SAE Int. J. Commer. Veh, doi. 10.4271/2008-01-1081, 2009.

[29] W.M.S.R. Weerasinghea, R.K. Stobarta and S.M. Hounshama. Thermal Efficiency Improvement in High Output Diesel Engines A Comparison of a Rankine Cycle with Turbo-compounding. HAL archieves-ouvertes, doi. 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2010.04.028, 2010.

[30] B. Wua, Q. Zhan, X. Yu, G. Lv, X. Nie and S. Liu. Effects of Miller cycle and variable geometry turbocharger on combustion and emissions in steady and transient cold process. Elsevier on Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 118, pp. 621-629, 2017.

[31] A. Dahad and A. S. Joglekar. Effect of Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT) on Diesel Engine. International Journal of Trend in Research and Development, Volume 3(2), issn: 2394-9333, 2016.

[32] M. Muqeem and M. Kumar. Turbo charging of IC engine: A Review. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology, vol. 4, iss. 1, pp. 142-149, 2013.

[33] R. Omran1, R. Younes and J.-C. Champoussin. Neural networks for real-time nonlinear control of a variable geometry turbocharged diesel engine. International journal of robust and nonlinear control, vol. 18, pp. 1209-1229, 2008.

[34] G.Fontaras, P. Pistikopoulos, Z. Samaras. Experimental evaluation of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and pollutant emissions over real-world simulation driving cycles. Elsevier on Atmospheric Environment 42, 4023–4035, 2018.