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International Journal of Advanced Research and Publications

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Temporal And Spatial Distribution Of Common Bacterial Livestock Disease Outbreaks In North Gondar, Ethiopia

Volume 1 - Issue 3, September 2017 Edition
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Author(s)
Debeb Dessie. Awake Menzir
Keywords
Outbreaks, risk factors, spatial and temporal distribution, North Gondar, Ethiopia
Abstract
Aretrospective longitudinal study was conducted from November 2013 to April 2014 to assess the spatial and temporal distribution of major bacterial livestock disease outbreaks and to identify risk factors in selected districts of North Gondar. The data were extracted from monthly and annual reports of the period of 2009 to 2013 from the Veterinary Services. The data were analyzed in relation to temporal and spatial factors. Of the total 254 outbreaks 132 were due to anthrax, 61 of blackleg, 33 of bovine pasteurellosis and 28 ofovine pasteurellosis. Highest and lowest number of outbreak were registered in the years 2010 (22.44%) and 2013 (15.74%), and during spring (29.52%) and, summer (19.29%) seasons, respectively. Outbreaks of anthrax followed by blackleg were the most frequent outbreak recorded diseases. The highest number ofoutbreak of anthrax, 40 of 132 (30.30%), was recorded in winter, with peak in February. The highest outbreak of blackleg, 33 (54.09%) of 61, was recorded in spring with peak in October and of bovine pasteurellosis, 14 (42.42%) of 33, outbreaks was recorded in winter, with peak in February. The highest outbreak of ovine pasteurellosis, 10 (35.71%) of 28, was recorded in winter, with peak in January. The highest and lowest numbers of outbreak were recorded in midland (54.00%) and highland (14.17%) agro ecology, respectively. Outbreak occurrence of the diseases follow relatively similar pattern of spatial distribution in respect to agro ecology. Whereas, the temporal distribution point of view, anthrax and blackleg follows opposite patterns of occurrence, but bovine and ovine pasteurellosis follow similar patterns of occurrence in both temporal and spatial distribution. Generally, lowest numbers of outbreak were recorded during the season of summer and within the agro ecology of highland. The study indicated that occurrence of outbreak had been affected by temporal and spatial factor. Therefore, animal owners and animal health service providers should give more emphasis to implementation of control and prevention measures in spring and winter seasons and for midland agro ecological regions to prevent occurrence of disease outbreaks in their animals in the study area.
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