Effect Of Fertilization And Spacing On Growth And Grain Yields Of Finger Millet (Eleusine Coracana L.) In Ainamoi, Kericho County, Kenya
Volume 2 - Issue 10, October 2018 Edition
[Download Full Paper]
Andrew Korir, Peter Kamau, David Mushimiyimana
Fertilization, Finger millet, Crop Spacing, Grain Yields
Finger Millet is an annual cereal crop widely grown for their seed in various ecological zones in Kenya and was once a staple grain diet of Southern Africa. It is a highly nutritious cereal crop utilized as a good food for infant feeding, special dishes for sick people and for special beverages among some people for example “eraki” beer in Ethiopia. Farmers have a wrong notion that finger millet being a traditional crop does not need any nutrient and usually is grown on marginal lands without applying any fertilizer. This could be an important reason for low productivity in the country. Fertilizer application or nutrient improvement is known to increase yields, yield components of the crop and lead to an improvement in the quality of the produce. A field experiment was conducted in Ainamoi Location in Kericho County to evaluate the effect of spacing and fertilizer levels on growth and yields of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana) variety P224. Three plant spacing of (i) 40x10 cm, (ii) 30x10 cm and (iii) 20x10 cm was applied with DAP fertilizer rates of 150 kg/ha, 125 kg/ha, 75 kg/ha and 0 kg/ha as basal fertilizer dose at sowing. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that spacing levels that were tested did not have a significant effect on plant height and leaf length but, significantly influenced the number of tillers with the closer spacing of 20 cm x10 cm showing a significantly lower tillering compared to the wider spacing of 30 cm x10 cm and 40 cm x10 cm. This led to a significantly higher grain yield for the closer spacing compared to the wider spacing of 30x10cm and 40x10cm. It is concluded that, though a wider spacing encouraged growth through stem and leaf elongation and tiller formation, this did not adequately compensate for the higher number of heads associated with the closer spacing and thus a closer spacing of 20x10 cm outperformed the wider spacing of 30x10cm and 40x10 cm and gave a significantly higher grain yield. The application of DAP fertilizer (18:46:0) had a significant influence on crop growth as measured by its plant height and leaf length. The higher rates of 125 and 150 kg DAP/ha showed superior growth in height and leaf length compared to no fertilizer and the lower dose of 75 kg DAP/ha. Fertilization had a significant effect on tiller formation; no-fertilizer treatment had a significantly lower number of tillers/plant. The higher dose of fertilizer gave the highest biomass and the highest grain yield. It is concluded that finger millet variety P224 was responsive to DAP application in both growth and yield variables and the higher dose of 150 kg/ha led to higher growth rate and higher performance in grain yield. The interaction between spacing and fertilizer application was ineffective on growth and yield variables for the finger millet variety P224. It is recommended that farmers adopt the closer spacing of 20x10 cm for Finger millet variety P224 in the study area for higher crop yield and farmers to apply a minimum of 125 kg DAP/ha. However, specific soil tests are recommended to establish the appropriate levels at which to apply the N and P fertilizers. Further research is recommended to establish the correct plant population for optimum production as the current three levels was inadequate for a conclusive determination of the exact plant population desirable for the variety P224.
 Adunga, A., Tesso, T., Degu, E., Tadesse, T., Merg, F., Lgesse, W., Tirfessa, A., Kidane, H., Wole, A., & Dada, C. (2011).Genotype-by-environment interaction and yield suitability analysis in finger millet (Eleusine coracana L., Gaertn) in Ethiopia. American Journal of plant sciences 2: 408-415
 Alinajati, S. & Mirshekari (2011). Effects of phosphorus fertilization and seed bio fertilization on harvest index and phosphorus use efficiency of wheat cultivars. Journal of food, Agricultural and environment 9 (2): 388-397
 Bayala,J., Teklehaimanot, Z. and Ouedraogo S,J.(2002) Millet production under pruned Tree crowns in a parkland system in Burkina Faso. Agrofor.syst.54:203-214.
 Beddington, J. (2010a) .Finger millet: A “certain crop for an “uncertain” future and a solution to food insecurity and hidden hunger under stress environments. Front plant science 2017; 8: 643.
 Beddington, J. (2010b). Food security: contributions from science to a new and greener revolution. Philos Trans. R. Soc. B.Biol.Sci.365 61-71.10.1098/ rstb. 2009.0201 [PMC free article] [Pub Med] [Cross Ref].
 Bekele, A. F., Getahun, D. W., Dereje A. B. (2016). Determination of Optimum Rates of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilization for Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn) Production at Assosa Zone, in Benishangul – Gumuz Region of Ethiopia. Advances in Sciences and Humanities, 2016; 2(1): 1-6. doi: 10.11648/j.ash.20160201.11
 Carletto, Z., & Banerjee (2014). Toward a Better Measurement of Household and Food Security: Harmonizing indicators and the role of Household Survey. Global food Security (2): 30-40. Retrieved from: https//researchgate.Net
 CGIAR (2011).Kenya: new varieties boost finger millet harvest. https://www.cgiar.org/consortuim-news/kenya-newvarieties boost-finger- millet harvest/.accessed 14 Nov 2016
 Chandrashekar A, (2010) Finger millet Eleusine coracana Adv. Food Nutri Res.2010, 59,215-262
 Devi V. & Sathyabama (2014). Health benefits of finger millet (Eleusine Coracana L.). Polyphenols and dietary fiber: A review of Food Science Technology, 51: DOI 1021-1040.100.1007/5 13197-11-0584-9. [PMC free article][PubMed].Retrievedfrom: https//www.ncbi.ncm.nih.gov>pubmed
 Dida MM, Srinivasachary M, Ramakrishnan s, Bennetzen JL, Gale MD, Desos Km (2007) the genetic map of finger millet, eleusine coracana. Theor Apple Genet 114:321-332
 Dida MM, Wanyera N, Dann MLH, Bennetzen JL, Devos KM, (2008). Population structure and diversity in finger millet (Eleusine caracana ) germplasm. Trop. Plant Biol. 2008, 1,131-141.
 Dida, M.M., Srinivasachary, S. Ramakrishnan, J.L. Bennetzen, M.D. & K. Devos, K. (2008). Population structure and diversity in finger millet (Eleusine coracana) germplasm. Tropical Plant Biol. 1:131-141.Retrieved from: dimensions, new challenges. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 27 (Nos. 3&4)
 Ebanyat P, de Ridder N, de Jager A, Delve, RS, Bekunda MA, Giller KE, (2010).Impacts of heterogeneity in soil fertility on legume-finger millet productivity, farmers targeting and economic benefits. Nutr.cycl Agroecosys, 2010 (87): 209-231
 FAO (2011). “FAOSTAT: production, crop millet 2010 data” Archived from original on 2013-01-14. Rome. Italy.
 Fetene M, Okori P, Gudu S, Mneney E & Tesfaye(2011) Delivering New Sorghum and Millet Innovation for Food Security and Improving Livelihoods in Eastern Africa. Nairobi, Kenya: International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
 Fuller, Dorian Q, (2011). Finding plant Domestication in the India sub-continent.Current Anthropology, 52 (54): 347-362, The origins of agriculture: New data, new ideas (October 2011).
 Gull A., Jan R., Nayik G.A., Prasad k., Kumar p. (2014) Significance of finger millet in nutrition, health and value added products: a review j. Environ.Sci. Comput. Sci. Eng. Technol. 3 1601-1608.
 Gruhn,P., Golletti, F., & Yuldeman, M. (2000). Integrated Nutrient Management:Food, Agriculture and the Environment Discussion Paper. IFPRI, Washington DC, USA. Retrieved from:www.scirp.org/ (S(351jmbntvnsjt1aadkposzje))/ reference/ReferencesPapers.aspx
 Gupta, I., Aiyar, R.S., Benes, V., Welkening, S., Huber, W., Pelechano, V., Steinmetz, L.M. (2014). Fluctuation of Dof 1/Dof 2 expression ratio under the influence of varying nitrogen and light conditions: involvement in differential regulation of nitrogen metabolism in two genotypes of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) Gene546, 327-335. 10. 1016/J.gene.2014.057[pub med] [Cross.Ref]
 Gupta, N, Gupta, A.K., Gaur, V.S., Kumar, A. (2012). Relationship of nitrogen use efficiency with the activities of enzymes involved in nitrogen uptake and assimilation of finger millet genotypes grown under different nitrogen inputs. Science World Journal, 2012:1-10
 Haruna, IM. And Aliyu L, (2011) Yield and economic returns of Sesame (Sesamum Indicum L.) as influenced by poultry manure, Nitrogen and Phosphorus at Samaru, Nigeria. Elexir Agric, 38: 4884 – 4887.
 Haruna IM and Usmam A,(2013) Agronomic efficiency of Cow Pea varieties (Vigna Unguiculata (L) Walp) under varying phosphorous rates in Lafia, Nassarawa, State. Asia J. of crop Sci, 5:2019-215
 Hay and Walker (1989) Introduction to the physiology of crop yield,England:Longman Scientific and Technical(1989),292 pp
 Hoda I.M, Salwa A.A & El-Sayed A.H. (2015). Performance of forage millet in response to combinations of organic and inorganic fertilizers and bio-fertilizers.DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wjas.2015.11.6.1902. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 11 (6); 423-431. Kenya
 Kerr, R.B. (2014). Lost and found crops: Agrobiodiversity, indigenous knowledge, and a feminist political ecology of sorghum and finger millet in Northen Malawi. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 104: 577-593.
 Kitur & Frye (2015). Impact of traditional soil burning (guie) on planosol properties and land use intensification management 31(2).DOI:10.111/sum.12182
 Krishnapa M, Ramesh S, chandraprakashJ, Bharathi J.G & Doss DD (2009) Breeding potential of selected crosses for Genetic improvement of finger millet. Journal of Sat Agricultural Research 7.
 Kumara O, Naik TB, Ananada kumar BM, (2014) Effect of weed management practices and fertility levels on soil health in finger millet-groundout cropping system. Int. J Agric.Sci. 2014, 10, 351-355.
 Mandage HM, Sharma S and Dar BN (2014) Instant Multigrain Porridge: effect of cooking treatment on physicochemical and functional properties. Journal of cereal science and technology. 51(1), 97-113.
 Mgonja M, Audi P, Manyasa E & H. Ojulong H. (2011). Integrated Blast and Weed Management and Microdosing in Finger Millet: A Hope Project Manual for Increasing Finger Millet Productivity in Eastern Africa. ICRISAT; International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics
 Mgonja M, Audi P, Mgonja AP, Manyasa E and Ojulong H (2013): A Hope Project Manual for increasing finger millet productivity. ICRISAT
 Ministry of agriculture and Rural Development, MOA&RD (2002). Field crops technical handbook, 2nd Ed., Kenya: GOK, Nairobi
 Ministry of agriculture MOA (2013)-millet (panicum miliaceum) growing.Crops extension pocket handbook Vol. 1-Field Crops. Revised Edition 2013. PP13- 17.
 Ministry of Agriculture, MOA (2011). Bomet District Annual Report: GOK, Kenya
 Ministry of Agriculture, MOA (2012). Crops Extension Pocket Handbook: GOK,
 Ministry of Agriculture, Kericho (2012). Kericho District Annual Report: GOK, Kenya
 Murinda and Saxena (1985) Review for field crops Research-Epsilon open Archieve-SLU. https//:pub.epsilon.slu.se>Jensen-------
 Muriu F, Kung’u J, Karega R, Njuki J, Mucheru-muna M, and Mugendi, D (2005) Adoption of nutrient replenishment technologies by farmers in Kirege Sub Location of central Kenya. African Crop Science Proceedings. 7:1501-150 Ir-library.ku.ac.ke>bistream>handle
 NAAIAP & KARI (2014). Soil suitability evaluation for maize production in Kenya Nairobi, Kenya.https://kenya.soilhealthconsortia/?wptb-ck=3.Accessed14 Nov 2016.
 Oduori C.O.A. (2005). The Importance and Research Status of Finger Millet in Africa. A PaperPresented at the McKnight Foundation Collaborative Crop Research Program Workshopon Tef& Finger Millet: Comparative Genomics of the Chloridoid Cereals, at theBiosciences for East and Central Africa (BECA) ILRI, Nairobi, Kenya, 28th – 30th June 2005. Retrieved from: http://mcknight.ccrp.cornell.edu/ participants/nairobi05/
 Oduori, C.O.A. (2008). Breeding investigations of finger millet characteristics including blast disease and Striga resistance in western Kenya (PhD thesis) University of Kwa Zulu, South Africa, Natal
 Ojulong H (2013) New Varieties promise an increase in Tanzania’s finger millet production.hope.icrisat.org>new-varieties-promise-….
 Ojulong H, Audi P, Manyasa E, and Mgonja M, (2011) Integrated Blast and Weed Management and Microdosing in Finger Millet: A hope project manual for Increasing Finger Millet productivity in Eastern Africa. oar.icrisat.org>A-HOPE- Project.
 Opole RA, Prasad PVV, Staggenborg SA (2013) effect of seeding and nitrogen fertilizer application rates on field performance of finger millet. Afri Crop Sci Soc. Kampala.
 Pradhan A, Thakur A, Patel S, and Mishra N, (2011) Effects of different nitrogen levels on kodo millet (Paspalum scrbiculatum L.) under rainfed conditions. Research journal of Agricultural Sciences.2 (1): 136-38
 Maobe S.N, Martha K, Nyangau, Basweti E.A, Getabu A, Mwangi T.J, and Ondicho A.R (2014) Effects of Plant Density on growth and Grain Yields of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracna) under High Potential conditions of Southwest Kenya
 Quattrocchi, (2006).Finger millet (Eleusine coracana), grain. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. Retrieved from: https://www. feedipedia. org/node/721 last updated on May 11, 2015 14:34.
 Raizada MN and Goron TL (2015). Genetic Diversity and Genomic Resources available for the small millet crops to accelerate green revolution. Frontiers in plant sciences 6:157
 Rathore B S., Rana V S., Nawal R K., Ashwani K and Vasist R (2009) Effects of Hybrids, Plant Density and fertility levels on nutrient concentration, uptake and productivity of Pearl millet in Semi-arid environment. The South Pacific journal of Natural Science. 27: 45-48.
 Rurinda J, Mapfumo P, van wijk MT, Mtambanegwe F, Rufina MC, Chikowo R, & Giller KE(2014) Comparative assessment of maize , finger millet and Sorghum for household food security in the face of increasing climatic risk. Eur.J.Agron.2014, 55, 29-41
 Ryosuke, Shinya F shigeru A, Naofumi K (2014) production of indigenous alcoholic beverages in rural village Cameroon. Browse publications, wiley online library 2018, and onlinelibrary.wisey.com
 Sahaja Organics-Sahaja millets (2010) https://Sahajaorganics.wordpress.com>....
 Salasya B, Oduori C, Ambitsi N, Onyango PE, Oucho P, Lumuli J (2009) The status of finger millet production in western kenya. In: African crop science conference Uganda, PP 719-723
 Sankar GRM, Sharma KL, Dhanapal GN, Shankar MA, Mishra PK, venkateswarlu B, Grace KK, (2011) influence of soil and fertilizer nutrients on sustainability of rain fed finger millet yield and soil fertility in semi-arid Alfisols. Commun. Soil sci- plant anal. 2011, 42, 1462-1483.
 Saturni L (2010) “The gluten-free diet: safety and nutritional quality”. Nutrients review, 2 (1): 16-34 PMC 32 57612
 Savanne P, Nanjppa HV, Ramachandrappa BK, Soumya T, (2011) Effects of residual fertility of preceding potato crop in yield and nutrient uptake of finger millet. Karmataka. J. Agric Sci.2011, 24,234-236.
 Sertsu and Sanchez (1978) Effects of “Guie” on soil organic carbon and other soil properties. Management practices in central Highlands of Ethiopia. www.academia.edu> effects- of-Guie-O----
 Shibairo SI, Nyongesa O, Onyango R and Ambuko J (2014) variation of nutritional and anti-nutritional contents in finger millet (Eleusine coracona (L.) Gartn). Genotypes. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and veterinary science (IOSR-JAVS); 7 (11), 06-12.
 Shinggu, C.P., & Gani, M. (2012). Effects of planting methods,sowing dates and spacing on weed and the productivity of Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn) in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria. Global Journal of Bio-Science & Biotechnology, 1 (2): 160-162
 Shinggu C.P, Dadari S.A, Shebayan, J.A.Y, Adekpe, D.I, Mahadi M.A, Mukhtar A and Asala S.W (2009). Influence of spacing and seed rate on weed suppression in Finger Millet (Eleusine Coracana gaertn). Middle East Journal of Scientific research, 4(4):267-270
 Shisanya CA, Recha C and Anyama A (2011) Rainfall variability and TIS, impact on normalized difference vegetation index in Asalts of kenya. International journal of Geosciences 2:36-47
 Shobana, Krishnaswamy, Sudha, Malleshi, Anjana, Palaniappan and Mohan (2013). Finger Millet (Ragi, Eleusine Coracana L.) A review of its nutritional properties, processing and plausible health benefits. Adv. Food Nutrition cereals. Res 2013, 69; 1-39.https://researchgate.net>2....
 Smaling, E. M. A., & Braun, A.R. (1996). Soil fertility research in Sub-Saharan Africa: New AGE
 Srinivasarao C, Venkateswarlu B, signh AK, Vittal KPR, Kundu S, Chary GR, Gajanan GN, Rama chandrappa BK, (2012) Critical carbon inputs to maintain soil organic carbon stocks under long-term finger-millet (Eleusine coracana) L.) Gaertn.) Cropping on Alfisols in semi-arid tropical India. J. plant-nutri soil sci. 2012, 175, 681-688.
 Thilakarathna, M.S., and Raizada MN (2015). A Review of Nutrient management studies involving finger millet in the semi-Arid Tropics of Asia. Agronomy, 2015, (5) 262-290. UkulimaSmart (2014)ukulimasmart.co.ke/index.php/en/cereals-farming/millet/268-millet- farming.
 Upadhyaya, H.D.,Gowda, C.L, Pundir, R.P,Reddy V.G., & Singh S.(2011). Development of core subset of data on 14 Quantitative traits finger millet germplasm using geographical origin and genetic resources and crop evolution, 53, 679-685.
 Wafula, N., Siambi, H. & Gweyi-Onyango (2016). Finger Millet (Eleusine Coracana L.) grain yield and yield components as influenced by Phosphorus application and variety in Western Kenya. Tropical plant Research 3(3):673-680. www.tropicalplant research.com
 Wekha, N.W, Korir N, Ojulong H.F &Gweyi-Onyango, J.P. (2016). Flowering and maturation of finger millet as influenced by phosphorus and variety in different Agro-ecologies in Kenya. Elixir Agriculture, 101(2016), 43458-43462.Retrived from: www.elixirpublishers.comwww.icmsat.org.Nairobi Kenya.