Chemical Composition Of Phytochemicals And Essential Oil Of Euphorbia Heterophylla
Volume 3 - Issue 11, November 2019 Edition
[Download Full Paper]
Wellington, E.O, Peters, D. E, Onyeike, E.N.
Phytochemical, Euphorbia heterophylla, essential oil, HPLC, Gas chromatograph.
Introduction: Medicinal plants are very rich in bioactive source of drugs of traditional system of medicine, modern medicines, nutraceuticals, food supplements, folk medicines, pharmaceutical intermediates and chemical entities for synthetic drugs. E. heterophylla is widely used in folklore medicine for the treatment of several bacterial infections. In traditional system of medicine, aqueous extract or decoction of the leaves that is used to prepare food such as yam porridge or taken directly to "wash out the bowels" or as a purgative. Objective: To qualitatively and quantitatively determine the phytochemical and essential oil composition of the aerial parts of E. heterophylla. Methodology: Phytochemical and essential oil screening and quantification of the aerial parts of E. heterophylla were carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). Results: Phytochemicals characterized include 719.19mg/100g alkaloid (euphorbin-A and C), 376.20mg/100g flavonoid (quercitrin and myricitrin ), 139.80mg/100g saponin (sapogenin, and saponine), 80.60mg/100g glycoside (rutin and kaempferol-3-glucopyranoside), 33.93 sterol (sistosterol and campesterol), 25.32 phenolic acid (vanillic and protocatechuric acid), 19.32mg/100g isoflavan (daidzein and genistein), 6.11mg/100g anthocyanins (Cyaniding-3-(6,6’caffeonyl-p-hydroxybenzoylso and cyaniding-3-(6,6’dicaffeonylsophoroside)-5-glucos), 1.92mg/100g terpenoid (B-amyrin and clovandiol), 1.19mg/100g anthraquinones (2,3-dimethoxybenzoquinone and heterophylline), 1.72x10-1mg/100g lignan (seroisolariciresino and epipinoresinol) in decreasing order and 100% essential oil. Conclusion: The presence of these essential oil and phytochemical constituents in E. heterophylla could be responsible for the therapeutic activities elicited by the plant.
 Ncube, N.S., Afolayan, A. J and Okoh, A. I. Assessment techniques of antimicrobial properties of natural compounds of plant origin: current methods and future trends. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2008, 7 (12): 1797-1806.
 Dutta choudhury, M. Ethno-medico botanical aspects of Reang tribe of Asam: A comprehensive study. PH.D thesis of Gauhati University, 1999.
 Edeoga, H.O., Okwu, D., Mbaebie, B.O. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian Medicinal plants. Afri. J. Biotechnol, 2005, 4(7):685-688.
 Rout, S.P., Choudhury, K.A., Kar, D.M., Das, L., Jain, A. Plants in traditional medicinal system-future source of new drugs. Internl. J. Pharmacy Pharmaceurical. Sci, 2009, 1(1):1-23.
 Akharaiyi, F.C., Boboye, B. Antibacterial and phytochemical evaluation of three medicinal plants, J Nat Prod, 2010 3:27-34.
 Hong, W., Guohua, C and Ronald, L. Oxygen Radical Absorbing Capacity of Anthocyanins. J. Agric. Food Chem, 1979, 45 (2), pp 304–309.
 Yorinori, J.T. Biological control of milk weed (Euphorbia heterophylla) with pathogenic fungi. In: Delfosse ES (ed). Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds 1985: 667–681.
 Falodun, A., Agbakwuru, E. O., and Ukoh, G. C. Antibacterial activity of Euphorbia heterophylla Linn (Family-Euphorbiaceae). Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 2003, 4(3):31-42.
 Oksuiz, S., Gil, R.R., Heebyung, C and Pezzuto, J.M. Biologically Active Compounds from the Euphorbiaceae; 2. Two Triterpenoids of Euphorbia cyparissias. Planta Medica, 1995, 60(6):594-6.
 Elshamy, A.I., Abd El-Gawad, A.M., El Gendy, A.E.G and Assaeed, A.M. Chemical characterization of Euphorbia heterophylla L. essential oils and their antioxidant activity and allelopathic potential on Cenchrus echinatus L. Chem Biodivers. 2019
 Lingaraju, K., Raja, N., Nagabhushana, G and Nagaraju, G (2019). Euphorbia heterophylla (L.) mediated fabrication of ZnO NPs: Characterization and evaluation of antibacterial and anticancer properties. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 2019, Volume 18, 100894.
 Ngounou, L., Kuete, V., Ngameni, B., Simo, C.C, Tankeu, R. K., Ngadjiu, B.T and Meyer, J.M. Extraction and isolation of Alkaloids from the Stem Bark of Garcinia cowa. Phytochemistry, 2005, 39,124-144.
 Kolb, N., Herrera, J.L and Fereyra, D.J. Analysis of Sweet Diterpene Glycosiedes from Stevia rebaudinana. Improved High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method. European Food Research and Technology, 2001, 231, 581-588.
 Victorio, C.P., Lage, C.L.S., Kuster, R.M and Quimica, E . Flavoid extraction from Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.). Ecletica Quimoica, 2010, 35, 15-46.
 Lough, G.N., Lannang, A.M., Ambazoa, C.D and Tangmoue, J.G. Extraction and isolation of Saponin Phytochemical constituents from the wood trunk of Garcinia polyanantha Oliv. Phytochemistry, 2009, 9, 1013-1017.
 Day, B.K and Underwood, J.C. Extraction and isolation of Essential oil using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Gas Chromatography (G.C). Phytochemistry, 1986, 52, 32-47.
 Goad, T and Akihisa, W. Validation of a quantitative procedure for the extraction of Sterol from edible oils using radiolabelled compounds. Article in Food Science, 2012, 32, 4-17.
 Xiaoxi, W. Extraction of Anthocyanin from Black Bean Canning wastewater with Macrowave-assisted Resins. Article in Journal of Food Science, 2014, 79(2):245-31.
 Hemwimon, S., Pavasant, P and Shotiprak, A. Microwave-assisted extraction of
 Antioxidant Anthraquinone from the root of Morinda citrifolia, 2007, 54, 44-50.
 Ivanova, D., Gerova, D., Chervenkov, T and Yankova, T. (2005). Polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of Bulgarian medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2005, 96: 145-150.
 Mandal, V., Mohan, Y and Hemalatha, S. Microwave assisted extraction: An innovative and promising extraction tool for medicinal plant research. Pharmacognosy Reviewed, 2007, 1: 7-18.
 Jana, S and Shekhawat, G.S. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial screening of in vivo and in vitroextracts of Indian medicinal herb: Anethum graveolens. Res. J. Med. Plant, 2010, 4: 206-212.
 Cowan, M.M. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clinical Microbiology, Rev., 1999, 12: 564-582.
 Ibtisam, M .A. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Sarcocolla Gum Resin. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 2017, Volume 20(11): 571-576.
 Mei Fen, S and Jong Yuh, C. Potential Applications of Euphorbia hirta in Pharmacology. In book: Drug Discovery Research in Pharmacognosy,2012,
 Anthon, R and Hang, B.M. Therapeutic uses of Natural anthraquinon for other than Laxative action. Pharmacology, 1980, 20:(suppl.1):104-112.
 Maryam, M., Rita, S and Olga, M. D. S. Anthraquinones as potential antimicrobial agents-A review. A. Mendez-Vilas, 2017, pp.55-6.
 Singh, R., Singh, S. , Kumar, S and Arora, S. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of ethyl acetate extract/fractions of Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Food Chem. Toxicol., 2007, 45: 1216-1223.
 Hagerman, A.E., Riedl, K.M. , Jones, G.A. , Sovik, K.N. , Ritchard, N.T. , Hartzfeld, P.W and Riechel, T.L. High molecular weight plant polyphenolics (Tannins) as biological antioxidants. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 1998, 46: 1887-1892.
 Atoui, A. K., Mansouri, A., Boskou, G and Kefalas, P. Tea and herbal infusions: Their antioxidant activity and phenolic profile. Food Chemistry, 2005, 89, 27-36.
 Hamid, A. A. Aiyelaagbe, O. O and Usman, L. A. Essential oils: its Medicinal and Pharmacological Uses. International Journal of Current Research, 2011, Vol. 33, Issue, 2, pp.086-098.
 Ocheng, F., Bwanga, F., Almer, B.E., Joloba, M., Borg-Karlson, A.K., Yucel-Lindberg, T and Gustafsson, A. Essential Oils from Ugandan Medicinal Plants: In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Effects on IL-1β-Induced Proinflammatory Mediators by Human Gingival Fibroblasts. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM, 2016, 5357689. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/5357689.
 Emmanuel, T.F. Phytochemical composition, bioactivity and wound healing potential of Euphorbia heterophylla (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract. International Journal of Research and Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, 2010, 1(1).