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Pharmacognostic Investigation Of Dried Powdered Leaves Of Traditional Medicinal Plant Microdesmis Puberula Used For Stopping Excessive Bleeding Of Women During Menstruation In Sierra Leone

Volume 3 - Issue 1, January 2019 Edition
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Lahai Koroma, T.B.R. Yormah, L.M. Kamara, G.M.T. Robert
Pharmacognosy, therapeutic efficacy, phytochemicals, menorrhagia, herbal medicine and mineral analysis
Pharmacognostic investigation was carried out on dried powdered Leaves of traditional medicinal plant Microdesmis puberula used for stopping excessive bleeding of women during menstruation in Eastern Province of Sierra Leone. The powdered stem bark was found to be dark green in colour with a characteristic grass flavour and bitter taste indicating that the plant organ investigated contained alkaloids. Some constituents gave fluorescence colour changes with the reagents 1M NaOH(aq.), 1M NaOH(alc.), Ammonia, 50% HCl, and 50% HNO3. Fluorescence analysis has been reported to be one of the parameters for pharmacognostic evaluation of crude drugs in traditional medicinal plants. The results phytochemical screening indicates that carbohydrates, alkaloid, flavonoids, tannins, proteins, sterols/terpenes and saponins are present in the ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts. The petroleum ether and acetone extracts gave the least concentration of the phytoconstituents investigated. The detection of the above secondary plant metabolites support the use of the plant in traditional medicine Elemental analysis on the dried powdered Leaves of Microdesmis puberula was performed with a Niton XL3t GOLD + Hand held X-ray Fluorescence (Thermo Fisher). The Niton Hand held XRF Instrument uses Ag-anode X-ray tube with a voltage of 50kV and equipped with a Si-drift detector (SDD). Accurate energy and efficiency calibrations of the spectrometer were made using a certified reference material – SRM 1573a – Tomato Leaves supplied by the International Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, Austria. The spectrum acquisition time was 480sec for the sample and the dead time was around 50%. A total of fifteen elements (K, Ca, Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, and Sc) were investigated using EDXRF. The results indicated that plant organ contained large amounts of nutrients and were rich in K (31614 ± 178.00 ppm), Ca (10872 ± 147.00 ppm), Mg (8122 ± 1434.00ppm), Al (5727 ± 258.00 ppm) and Fe (2670.7± 25.46ppm). The other elements present in smaller quantities were Ti (875 ± 21.00 ppm), Zr (129.36 ±1.29 ppm), Mn (126.34 ± 13.31 ppm), Zn (119.53 ± .33ppm), Sr (68.88 ± 0.94ppm), Sc (68.00 ±12.00ppm), Rb (45.01 ± 1.00 ppm), Cu (23.57 ± 4.46ppm), V (11.99 ± 7.50 ppm) and Mo (4.46 ± 0.81ppm). The presence of potassium, iron, calcium and magnesium in the dried powdered Leaves of Microdesmis puberula plant also support the use of the plant in controlling excessive blood loss during menstruation in women.
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