Relationship of Emotional Invalidation to Thought Suppression and Avoidant Stress Responses
Volume 5 - Issue 5, May 2022 Edition
[Download Full Paper]
Nikki D. Orita, Paulo Manuel L. Macapagal, Rocel P. Asotegue, Zyrll Kate Yabut, Jewel Anne Duran
emotional invalidation, thought suppression, avoidant stress responses
Emotional invalidation is a construct that has received very little attention despite its theoretical importance. The current study examined the relationship between emotional invalidation to thought suppression and avoidant stress responses among married couples residing in Metro Manila. Using the Perceived Invalidation of Emotion Scale, White Bear Thought Suppression Inventory, and Avoidant Stress Responses Scale the researchers have accelerated to study how married couples handle emotional invalidation. Descriptive-correlational design was utilized and respondents were chosen using a non-probability purposive sampling technique with a specific criterion wherein four hundred and seventy-five participants completed a forced-choice questionnaire about how they perceived invalidation with their spouse and a subset of this group (n=200) completed an additional measure about thought suppression and avoidant stress responses. The result indicated that 63% of the respondents perceived that they are very highly invalidated; 52% of the respondents scored high on the level of thought suppression while 51% of the respondents are moderately avoidant. The result of the statistical treatment of data using linear regression analysis shows that married couples who perceived that they are emotionally invalidated do not engage in thought suppression and avoidant stress responses. Therefore, the researcher concluded that emotional invalidation has no significant relationship to thought suppression and avoidant stress responses. In line with this, this current study can provide a foundation for future researchers to expand more study about invalidation.
. Lavner, J. A., Karney, B. R., & Bradbury, T. N. (2016). Does couples' communication predict marital satisfaction, or does marital satisfaction predict communication? Journal of Marriage and Family, 78(3), 680-694.
. Lynch, T. R., Robins, C. J., Morse, J. Q., & Krause, E. D. (2001). A mediational model relating affect intensity, emotion inhibition, and psychological distress. Behavior Therapy, 32(3), 519-536.
. One In Four Women Have Ever Experienced Spousal Violence (Preliminary results from the 2017 National Demographic and Health Survey). (2018, March 26). Retrieved from https://psa.gov.ph/content/one-four-women-have- ever-experienced-spousal-violence-preliminary- results-2017-national.
. Leong, L. E., Cano, A., & Johansen, A. B. (2011). Sequential and base rate analysis of emotional validation and invalidation in chronic pain couples: Patient gender matters. The Journal of Pain, 12, 1140–1148. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2011.04.004
. Krause, E. D., Mendelson, T., & Lynch, T. R. (2003). Childhood emotional invalidation and adult psychological distress: The mediating role of emotional inhibition. Child abuse & neglect, 27(2), 199-213.
. Thonhauser, G. (2018). Shared emotions: a Steinian proposal. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 17(5), 997-1015.
. Tibbett, T. P., & Lench, H. C. (2015). When do feelings help us? The interpersonal function of emotion. Advances in Psychology Research, 107, 1- 10.
. Wanzer, B. M., Eichhorn, C. K., & Thomas- Maddox, C. (2017). Interpersonal Communication:
Building Rewarding Relationships, 2nd Edition
. Mada, R. (2016). Personality Characteristics and Relationship Satisfaction of Individuals who attended the Preparación de Novios Weekend Workshop (Doctoral dissertation, Walden University).
. Edlund, S. M., Carlsson, M. L., Linton, S. J., Fruzzetti, A. E., & Tillfors, M. (2015). I see you’re in pain–the effects of partner validation on emotions in people with chronic pain. Scandinavian Journal of Pain, 6, 16-21.
. Heard, K. M. (2021). Childhood Abuse, Invalidation, and Personality in a College Population.
. Faustino, B., Vasco, A. B., Silva, A. N., & Marques, T. (2020). Relationships between emotional schemas, mindfulness, self-compassion and unconditional self-acceptance on the regulation of psychological needs. Research in Psychotherapy: Psychopathology, Process, and Outcome, 23(2).
. Karnaze, M. M., & Levine, L. J. (2020). Lay theories about whether emotion helps or hinders: Assessment and effects on emotional acceptance and recovery from distress. Frontiers in psychology, 11, 183.
. Loess, P. F. (2019). Self-compassion and Fear of Compassion as Mediators in the Relationships of Childhood Invalidation with Emotion Dysregulation and with Borderline Personality Characteristics (Doctoral dissertation, University of Montana).
. Dable, C. (2017). Validation: A New Way to Help Friends Better Deal with Pain? Retrieved from https://psychandneuro.duke.edu/sites/psychandneur o.duke.edu/files/file- attachments/2017_GWD_Dable_Cortney.pdf.
. Uwom-Ajaegbu, O. O., Emmanuel, O., & Lekan Ajaegbu, C. P. (2015). An empirical study on the causes and effects of communication breakdown in marriages. Journal of Sound Islamic Thoughts, 1(1), 46-51
. Jalovaara, M., & Kulu, H. (2018). Separation risk over union duration: An immediate itch? European Sociological Review, 34(5), 486-500.
. Zielinski, M. J., & Veilleux, J. C. (2018). The Perceived Invalidation of Emotion Scale (PIES): Development and psychometric properties of a novel measure of current emotion invalidation. Psychological assessment, 30(11), 1454.
. Weber, D. M., & Herr, N. R. (2019). The
messenger matters: Invalidating remarks from men provoke a more negative emotional reaction than do remarks from women. Psychological reports, 122(1), 180-200.
. González-Rivera, J. A., Aquino-Serrano, F., & Pérez-Torres, E. M. (2020). Relationship satisfaction and infidelity-related behaviors on social networks: A preliminary online study of Hispanic women. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, 10(1), 297- 309.
. Siegel, A., Bachem, R., Levin, Y., Zhou, X., & Solomon, Z. (2020). Long-Term Trajectories of Marital Adjustment in Israeli Couples Over Decades: Does Gender Matter?. Journal of Adult Development, 27(3), 224-239.
. Herr, N. R., Meier, E. P., Weber, D. M., & Cohn, D. M. (2017). Validation of Emotional Experience Moderates the Relation between Personality and Aggression. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 8(2), 126-139
. Greville-Harris, M., Hempel, R., Karl, A., Dieppe, P., & Lynch, T. R. (2016). The power of invalidating communication: Receiving invalidating feedback predicts threat-related emotional, physiological, and social responses. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 35(6), 471-493.
. Crystal, S. (2017). The Effect of Emotional Vulnerability and Invalidation on Emotion Dysregulation in Early Adolescence: An Empirical Investigation of Linehan’s Biosocial Theory of Borderline Personality Disorder.
. Witkowski, G. (2017). The Effect of Emotionally Validating and Invalidating Responses on Emotional Self-Efficacy.
. Johnson, B. B. (2016). Perceived Emotional Invalidation in a Developmental Context: Does Gender Matter?
. Keng, S. L., & Wong, Y. Y. (2017).
Association among self-compassion, childhood invalidation, and borderline personality disorder symptomatology in a Singaporean sample. Borderline personality disorder and emotion dysregulation, 4(1), 1-8.
. Elzy, M., & Karver, M. (2018). Behaviour vs. perception: An investigation into the components of emotional invalidation. Personality and mental health, 12(1), 59-72.
. Adrian, M., Berk, M. S., Korslund, K., Whitlock, K., McCauley, E., & Linehan, M. (2018). Parental validation and invalidation predict adolescent self-harm. Professional psychology: research and practice, 49(4), 274.
. Markman, H. J., Rhoades, G. K., Stanley, S.
M., Ragan, E. P., & Whitton, S. W. (2010). The premarital communication roots of marital distress and divorce: the first five years of marriage. Journal of family psychology, 24(3), 289.
. Wang, D., Chatzisarantis, N. L., & Hagger, M.
S. (2017). Mechanisms underlying effective thought suppression using focused-distraction strategies: A self-determination theory approach. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 4(4), 367.
. Gupta, S., & Mishra, J. (2016). Mindlessness, submissive behavior and thought Suppression: A perceptual buffering of self-compassion to psychological vulnerabilities among Indians. Journal of Depression and Anxiety, 5(4), 246.
. Wegner, D. M., & Zanakos, S. (1994). Chronic thought suppression. Journal of personality, 62(4), 615-640.
. Feliu-Soler, A., Pérez-Aranda, A., Montero- Marín, J., Herrera-Mercadal, P., Andrés-Rodríguez, L., Angarita-Osorio, N., ... & Luciano, J. V. (2019). Fifteen years controlling unwanted thoughts: A systematic review of the thought control ability questionnaire (TCAQ). Frontiers in psychology, 1446.
. Donald, J. N., Atkins, P. W., Parker, P. D., Christie, A. M., & Ryan, R. M. (2016). Daily stress and the benefits of mindfulness: Examining the daily and longitudinal relations between present- moment awareness and stress responses. Journal of Research in Personality, 65, 30-37.
. Ryckman, N. A., Addis, D. R., Latham, A. J., & Lambert, A. J. (2018). Forget about the future:
effects of thought suppression on memory for imaginary emotional episodes. Cognition and Emotion, 32(1), 200-206.
. Najmi, S., & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Hidden complications of thought suppression. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 2(3), 210-223.
. Efrati, Y., Kolubinski, D. C., Marino, C., & Spada, M. M. (2021). Modelling the Contribution of Metacognitions, Impulsiveness, and Thought Suppression to Behavioural Addictions in Adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(7), 3820
. Murray, C. V., Jacobs, J. I. L., Rock, A. J., & Clark, G. I. (2021). Attachment style, thought suppression, self-compassion and depression: Testing a serial mediation model. Plos one, 16(1), e0245056
. Dworkin, J. D., Zimmerman, V., Waldinger, R. J., & Schulz, M. S. (2019). Capturing naturally occurring emotional suppression as it unfolds in couple interactions. Emotion, 19(7), 1224.
. Garofalo, C., Holden, C. J., Zeigler‐Hill, V., & Velotti, P. (2016). Understanding the connection between self‐esteem and aggression: The mediating role of emotion dysregulation. Aggressive behavior, 42(1), 3-15.
. Purdon, C. L. (2021). MR Purdon Thought Suppression RESUBMIT July 11. Research Gate. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190236557.0 13.84.
. Thimm, J. C., Wang, C. E., Waterloo, K., Eisemann, M., & Halvorsen, M. (2018). Coping, thought suppression, and perceived stress in currently depressed, previously depressed, and never depressed individuals. Clinical psychology & psychotherapy, 25(3), 401-407.
. Rassin, E. (2003). The White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI) focuses on failing suppression attempts. European Journal of Personality, 17(4), 285-298.
. Schmidt, R. E., Gay, P., Courvoisier, D., Jermann, F., Ceschi, G., David, M., ... & Van der Linden, M. (2009). Anatomy of the White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI): A review of previous findings and a new approach. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(4), 323-330.
. Cichon, E., Szczepanowski, R., & Niemiec, T. (2020). Polish version of the White Bear
Suppression Inventory (WBSI) by Wegner and Zanakos: factor analysis and reliability. Psychiatr Pol, 54(1), 125-135.
. Cameron, L. D., & Overall, N. C. (2018). Suppression and expression as distinct emotion- regulation processes in daily interactions: Longitudinal and meta-analyses. Emotion, 18(4), 465
. Davis, S. B. (2017). Sense of belonging, emotion regulation, perceived social support and mental health among college students. Old Dominion University.
. Brandão, T., Brites, R., Pires, M., Hipólito, J., & Nunes, O. (2019). Anxiety, depression, dyadic adjustment, and attachment to the fetus in pregnancy: Actor–partner interdependence mediation analysis. Journal of family psychology, 33(3), 294.
. Righetti, F., & Impett, E. (2017). Sacrifice in close relationships: Motives, emotions, and relationship outcomes. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 11(10), e12342.
. Righetti, F., Schneider, I., Ferrier, D., Spiridonova, T., Xiang, R., & Impett, E. A. (2020). The bittersweet taste of sacrifice: Consequences for ambivalence and mixed reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.
. Ramos, A. L. A., Dadiz, B. G., & Santos, A. B.
G. (2020). Classifying emotion based on facial expression analysis using Gabor filter: A basis for adaptive effective teaching strategy. In Computational Science and Technology (pp. 469- 479). Springer, Singapore.
. Zoppolat, G., Visserman, M. L., & Righetti, F. (2020). A nice surprise: Sacrifice expectations and partner appreciation in romantic relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 37(2), 450-466.
. Feeney, J. A., & Karantzas, G. C. (2017). Couple conflict: insights from an attachment perspective. Current opinion in psychology, 13, 60- 64.
. Langeslag, S. J., & van Strien, J. W. (2016). Regulation of romantic love feelings: Preconceptions, strategies, and feasibility. PloS one, 11(8), e0161087
. Shahid, H., & Kazmi, S. F. (2016). Role of emotional regulation in marital satisfaction. International Journal for Social Studies, 2(4), 47-60.
. Balzarotti, S., Biassoni, F., Villani, D., Prunas, A., & Velotti, P. (2016). Individual differences in cognitive emotion regulation: Implications for subjective and psychological well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(1), 125-143.
. Ong, E., & Thompson, C. (2019). The importance of coping and emotion regulation in the occurrence of suicidal behavior. Psychological reports, 122(4), 1192-1210.
. Greenaway, K. H., & Kalokerinos, E. K. (2017). Suppress for success? Exploring the contexts in which expressing positive emotion can have social costs. European Review of Social Psychology, 28(1), 134-174.
. Sun, M., & Lau, A. S. (2018). Exploring cultural differences in expressive suppression and emotion recognition. Journal of cross-cultural psychology, 49(4), 664-672.
. Frye, N. (2018). Marital conflict and spousal wellbeing: the moderating role of emotion regulation strategies among couples in first married families and stepfamilies (Doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri--Columbia).
. Rusu, P. P., Bodenmann, G., & Kayser, K. (2019). Cognitive emotion regulation and positive dyadic outcomes in married couples. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 36(1), 359-376.
. Juretić, J. (2018). Quality of close relationships and emotional regulation regarding social anxiety. Psychiatria Danubina, 30(4), 441-451.
. Nindyasari, Y., & Herawati, T. (2018). The Relation of Emotional Maturity, Family Interaction and Marital Satisfaction of Early Age Married Couples. Journal of Family Sciences, 3(2), 16-29
. Ghazivakili, Z., Lotfi, R., Norouzinia, R., & Kabir, K. (2019). Emotional maturity and mental health among new couples referred to pre-marriage health center in Karaj, Iran. Shiraz E Medical Journal, 20(12)
. Yoshany, N., Morowatisharifabad, M. A., Mihanpour, H., Bahri, N., & Jadgal, K. M. (2017). The Effect of Husbands' Education Regarding Menopausal Health on Marital Satisfaction of Their Wives. Journal of menopausal medicine, 23(1), 15- 24.
. Lafontaine, M. F., Azzi, S., Bell-Lee, B., Dixon-Luinenburg, T., Guérin-Marion, C., & Bureau, J. F. (2020). Romantic perfectionism and perceived conflict mediate the link between insecure romantic attachment and intimate partner violence in undergraduate students. Journal of family violence, 1-14.
. Popa, C. O., Predatu, R., Lee, W. C., Blaga, P.,
Sirbu, E., Rus, A. V., & Bredicean, C. (2021). Thought Suppression in Primary Psychotic Disorders and Substance/Medication Induced Psychotic Disorder. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(1), 116.
. Kahambing, J. G. S., Deguma, J. J., & Deguma, M. C. (2019). Marrying, Loving, and Dreaming: A Case Study of the Developmental Tasks of Lasting Marriages in the Philippines. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 8(3), 234-234.
. Haris, F., & Kumar, A. (2018). Marital satisfaction and communication skills among married couples. Indian journal of social research, 59(1), 35-44.
. Gerām, K. (2016). The role of cognitive emotion regulation and thought control strategies in the connection between attachment styles and domestic violence in couples. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 7(4 S1), 128.
. Özyiğit, M. K. (2017). The meaning of marriage according to university students: A phenomenological study. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 17(2)
. Kalokerinos, E. K., Greenaway, K. H., & Casey, J. P. (2017). Context shapes social judgments of positive emotion suppression and expression. Emotion, 17(1), 169.
. Niessen, C., Göbel, K., Lang, J. W., & Schmid,
U. (2020). Stop Thinking: An Experience Sampling Study on Suppressing Distractive Thoughts at Work. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1616.
. Hazrati, M., Hamid, T. A., Ibrahim, R., Hassan, S. A., Sharif, F., & Bagheri, Z. (2017). The dyadic effects of controlling emotional abuse on subjective emotional experience in Iranian older married couples. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 38(3), 514-528.
. Rilveria, J. R. C. (2018). The development of the Filipino coping strategies scale. Asia-Pacific Social Science Review, 18(1), 111-126.
. Ereno, J. R., Andrade, K. M., Miyauchi, S. I., Salinda, R., Arevalo, R. R., & Reyes, J. (2014). Encountering and countering work stress: a multivariate analysis of the occupational stress and coping mechanisms of fast food restaurant personnel in the Philippines. European Scientific Journal, 10(8).
. Vrinten, C., Boniface, D., Lo, S. H., Kobayashi, L. C., von Wagner, C., & Waller, J. (2018). Does psychosocial stress exacerbate avoidant responses to cancer information in those who are afraid of cancer? A population-based survey among older adults in England. Psychology & health, 33(1), 117-129.
. Livneh, H. (2019). The use of generic avoidant coping scales for psychosocial adaptation to chronic illness and disability: A systematic review. Health psychology open, 6(2), 2055102919891396.
. Quah, S. K., Cockcroft, G. J., McIver, L., Santangelo, A. M., & Roberts, A. C. (2020). Avoidant coping style to high imminence threat is linked to higher anxiety-like behavior. Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience, 14, 34.
. Weiss, N. H., Risi, M. M., Sullivan, T. P., Armeli, S., & Tennen, H. (2019). Post-traumatic stress disorder symptom severity attenuates bi- directional associations between negative affect and avoidant coping: A daily diary study. Journal of affective disorders, 259, 73-81.
. Holahan, C. J., Moos, R. H., Holahan, C. K., Brennan, P. L., & Schutte, K. K. (2005). Stress generation, avoidance coping, and depressive symptoms: a 10-year model. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 73(4), 658.
. Khalifian, C. E., & Barry, R. A. (2016). Trust, attachment, and mindfulness influence intimacy and disengagement during newlyweds’ discussions of relationship transgressions. Journal of Family Psychology, 30(5), 592.
. Dijkstra, M., & Homan, A. C. (2016). Engaging in rather than disengaging from stress: Effective coping and perceived control. Frontiers in psychology, 7, 1415.
. Adriani, S. R., & Ratnasari, Y. (2021) Conflict Resolution Styles and Marital Satisfaction in Men
and Women: Study in the First Five Years of Marriage.
. Gorka, A. X., LaBar, K. S., & Hariri, A. R. (2016). Variability in emotional responsiveness and coping style during active avoidance as a window onto psychological vulnerability to stress. Physiology & behavior, 158, 90-99.
. Tanaka, Y., Ishitobi, Y., Inoue, A., Oshita, H., Okamoto, K., Kawashima, C., & Akiyoshi, J. (2016). Sex determines cortisol and alpha‐amylase responses to acute physical and psychosocial stress in patients with avoidant personality disorder. Brain and behavior, 6(8), e00506
. Andriopoulos, P., & Kafetsios, K. (2015). Avoidant attachment and the processing of emotion information: Selective attention or cognitive Avoidance? Journal of Relationships Research, 6.
. Cunha, M., Galhardo, A., & Pinto-Gouveia, J. (2016). Experiential avoidance, self-compassion, self-judgment and coping styles in infertility. Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare, 10, 41-47.
. Rackham, E. L., Larson, J. H., Willoughby, B.
J., Sandberg, J. G., & Shafer, K. M. (2017). Do Partner Attachment Behaviors Moderate Avoidant Conflict-Resolution Styles and Relationship Self- Regulation?. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 45(4), 206-219.
. Tasew, A. S., & Getahun, K. K. (2021). Marital conflict among couples: The case of Durbete town, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Cogent Psychology, 8(1), 1903127.
. Yazon, A. D., Ang-Manaig, K., & Tesoro, J. F.
B. (2018). Coping Mechanism and Academic Performance Among Filipino Undergraduate Students. KnE Social Sciences, 30-42.
. Simpson, J. A., & Rholes, W. S. (2017). Adult attachment, stress, and romantic relationships. Current opinion in psychology, 13, 19-24.
. Abouammoh, N., Irfan, F., & AlFaris, E. (2020). Stress coping strategies among medical students and trainees in Saudi Arabia: a qualitative study. BMC medical education, 20(1), 1-8
. Douglas, S. M. (2015). Effects of Romantic Attachment and Partner Presence on Physiological Stress Reactivity.
. Morin, C. M., Rodrigue, S., & Ivers, H. (2016). Role of stress, arousal, and coping skills in primary insomnia. Psychosomatic medicine, 65(2), 259-267
. Crenshaw, A. O., Leo, K., & Baucom, B. R. (2019). The effect of stress on empathic accuracy in romantic couples. Journal of Family Psychology, 33(3), 327
. Shin, M., & Kemps, E. (2020). Media multitasking as an avoidance coping strategy against emotionally negative stimuli. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 33(4), 440-451.
. Knobloch, L. K., Sharabi, L. L., Delaney, A. L., & Suranne, S. M. (2016). The role of relational uncertainty in topic avoidance among couples with depression. Communication Monographs, 83(1), 25-48.
. Young, D., & Limbers, C. A. (2017). Avoidant coping moderates the relationship between stress and depressive emotional eating in adolescents. Eating and weight disorders-Studies on anorexia, bulimia and obesity, 22(4), 683-691
. Bodenmann, G., Randall, A. K., & Falconier,
M. K. (2016). Coping in couples: the systemic transactional model (STM). Couples coping with stress: A cross-cultural perspective, 5-22.
. Sahin, S., & Mete, J. (2021). A Brief Study on Descriptive Research: Its Nature and Application in Social Science. International Journal of Research and Analysis in Humanities, 1(1), 11-11.
. Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative (pp. 338). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall