Reviewing Irrigation Water Scarcity And Sufficiency With A Case Study Of Jhikhukhola Watershed, Nepal
Volume 5 - Issue 5, May 2022 Edition
[Download Full Paper]
Raghu Nath Prajapati, Manal Mohsen Abood, Bhesh Raj Thapa
Water scarcity in irrigation, Water sufficiency in irrigation, Jhikukhola river, Panchkhal valley
Water scarcity is rapidly growing issue especially in water scarcity country. Projected population is a considerable factor in water scarcity because crop production is more in irrigated agriculture than rain-fed agriculture but only about 20 % agricultural land is facilitated by irrigation in the world. Rice is a main food grain in more than half the population in the world including in Nepal. Thus, rice production is an important crop as a food and economic growth of the country. The irrigation water is declined continuously every year due to rapidly increase in population growth, urbanization, depleting groundwater, high water demanding crop and inefficient irrigation for rice based farming which make a problem in self-sufficiency in food. “Jhikhukhola” is only one river in Panchkhal valley in Nepal is important river because of Jhikhukhola watershed (panchkhal valley) is economically very active in terms of agriculture, as most of the land in the watershed is covered by crop production. But nowadays, it is badly facing water scarcity in irrigation; so, different types of options of the technology to improve the water sufficiency in the Jhikhukhola watershed have been studied.
 M. Falkenmark and J. Rockström, “The New Blue and Green Water Paradigm: Breaking New Ground for Water Resources Planning and Management,” J. Water Resour. Plan. Manag., vol. 132, no. 3, pp. 129–132, 2006, doi: 10.1061/(asce)0733-9496(2006)132:3(129).
 F. and A. O. of the U. S. FAO, “Review of World Water Resources by Country,” 2003. [Online]. Available: http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/Y4473E/y4473e08.htm#bm08.1.
 N. Mancosu, R. L. Snyder, G. Kyriakakis, and D. Spano, “Water scarcity and future challenges for food production,” Water (Switzerland), vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 975–992, 2015, doi: 10.3390/w7030975.
 Y. Jiang, “China’s water scarcity,” J. Environ. Manage., vol. 90, no. 11, pp. 3185–3196, 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.04.016.
 D. Karthe, S. Chalov, and D. Borchardt, “Water resources and their management in central Asia in the early twenty first century: status, challenges and future prospects,” Environ. Earth Sci., vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 487–499, 2015, doi: 10.1007/s12665-014-3789-1.
 D. F. Yohannes, C. J. Ritsema, H. Solomon, J. Froebrich, and J. C. van Dam, “Irrigation water management: Farmers’ practices, perceptions and adaptations at Gumselassa irrigation scheme, North Ethiopia,” Agric. Water Manag., vol. 191, no. 2017, pp. 16–28, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.05.009.
 WEF, “World Economic Forum: Global Risks Report 2019,” Comput. Fraud Secur., vol. 2019, no. 2, pp. 4–4, 2019, doi: 10.1016/s1361-3723(19)30016-8.
 M. M. Mekonnen and A. Y. Hoekstra, “Sustainability: Four billion people facing severe water scarcity,” Sci. Adv., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 1–7, 2016, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1500323.
 M. A. Badawi, “Water Saver is a Natural Product for Saving Irrigation Water in Date Palm and Golf Course Plantations in UAE,” in 8 International Conference on Water Resources and Arid Environments (ICWRAE 8): 318-322 22-24 January 2019, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Water, 2019, pp. 318–322, doi: 10.30635/2415-0142.2019.05.7.
 M. C. Rulli, A. Saviori, and P. D’Odorico, “Global land and water grabbing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 892–897, 2013, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1213163110.
 M. M. Mekonnen and A. Y. Hoekstra, “National water footprint accounts: the green, blue and grey water footprint of production and consumption, Value of Water Research Report Series No. 50,” Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., vol. 8, no. 1, 2011.
 J. Rockström, M. Falkenmark, L. Karlberg, H. Hoff, S. Rost, and D. Gerten, “Future water availability for global food production: The potential of green water for increasing resilience to global change,” Water Resour. Res., vol. 45, no. 7, pp. 1–16, 2009, doi: 10.1029/2007WR006767.
 J. S. Wallace, “Increasing agricultural water use efficiency to meet future food production,” Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., vol. 82, no. 1–3, pp. 105–119, 2000, doi: 10.1016/S0167-8809(00)00220-6.
 D. Molden, Water for food water for life: A Comprehensive assessment of water management in agriculture. 2007.
 K. Chartzoulakis and M. Bertaki, “Sustainable Water Management in Agriculture under Climate Change,” Agric. Agric. Sci. Procedia, vol. 4, pp. 88–98, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.aaspro.2015.03.011.
 J. Alcamo et al., “Global estimates of water withdrawals and availability under current and future ‘business-as-usual’ conditions,” Hydrol. Sci. J., vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 339–348, 2003, doi: 10.1623/hysj.48.3.339.45278.
 J. Rockström et al., “The unfolding water drama in the Anthropocene: Towards a resilience-based perspective on water for global sustainability,” Ecohydrology, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 1249–1261, 2014, doi: 10.1002/eco.1562.
 L. Rosa, M. C. Rulli, K. F. Davis, D. D. Chiarelli, C. Passera, and P. D’Odorico, “Closing the yield gap while ensuring water sustainability,” Environ. Res. Lett., vol. 13, no. 10, 2018, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/aadeef.
 Y. Wada and M. F. P. Bierkens, “Sustainability of global water use: Past reconstruction and future projections,” Environ. Res. Lett., vol. 9, no. 10, 2014, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/9/10/104003.
 G. Fischer, F. N. Tubiello, H. van Velthuizen, and D. A. Wiberg, “Climate change impacts on irrigation water requirements: Effects of mitigation, 1990-2080,” Technol. Forecast. Soc. Change, vol. 74, no. 7, pp. 1083–1107, 2007, doi: 10.1016/j.techfore.2006.05.021.
 E. Borsato, L. Rosa, F. Marinello, P. Tarolli, and P. D’Odorico, “Weak and Strong Sustainability of Irrigation: A Framework for Irrigation Practices Under Limited Water Availability,” Front. Sustain. Food Syst., vol. 4, no. February, pp. 1–16, 2020, doi: 10.3389/fsufs.2020.00017.
 Z. Di, L. Ruiqi, W. D. Batchelor, H. Ju, and Y. Li, “Evaluation of limited irrigation strategies to improve water use efficiency and wheat yield in the North China Plain,” PLoS One, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1–16, 2018, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189989.
 F. S. Abdelhaleem, M. Basiouny, E. Ashour, and A. Mahmoud, “Application of remote sensing and geographic information systems in irrigation water management under water scarcity conditions in Fayoum, Egypt,” J. Environ. Manage., vol. 299, no. August, pp. 1–9, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113683.
 M. E. D. M. Omar and A. M. A. Moussa, “Water management in Egypt for facing the future challenges,” J. Adv. Res., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 403–412, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.jare.2016.02.005.
 A. M. Elmoghazy and M. M. Elshenawy, “Sustainable cultivation of rice in Egypt,” Handb. Environ. Chem., vol. 76, pp. 119–144, 2019, doi: 10.1007/698_2018_241.
 J. Y. Choi, “Irrigation and Drainage in Korea and ICT Applications,” Irrig. Drain., vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 157–164, 2016, doi: 10.1002/ird.1947.
 S. Susanto and A. H. B. Suhono, “An analysis of irrigated paddy land contribution to maintain regional self sufficiency of food (rice) at Bantul regency of the special province of Yogyakarta,” in IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2019, vol. 355, no. 1, pp. 1–8, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/355/1/012016.
 Murtiningrum and F. Imron, “Application of path analysis to determine the relationship of factors affecting irrigation water sufficiency at the tertiary level of Belitang irrigation system, Indonesia,” IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 653, no. 1, 2021, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/653/1/012123.
 M. W. Trinugroho and D. H. Nguyen, “Assessing freshwater water balance in Cimanuk River Basin,” IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 648, no. 1, 2021, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/648/1/012094.
 N. Bhattarai et al., “The impact of groundwater depletion on agricultural production in India,” Environ. Res. Lett., vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1–13, 2021, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/ac10de.
 P. Sharma, M. S. Rishi, and T. Thakur, “Temporal Variations in Groundwater Quality with Special Reference to Irrigation in Faridkot and Muktsar Areas of Southwest Punjab, India,” Int. J. Sci. Res., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 577–584, 2017, doi: 10.21275/art20164122.
 A. Abinaya and M. Asokhan, “Impact of Drip Irrigation System among Onion Growers in Coimbatore,” Int. J. Agric. Sci. Res., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 351–356, 2019, doi: 10.24247/ijasrjun201948.
 J. A. Gómez-Limón, C. G. Martin, and N. M. Montilla-Lopez, “Agricultural Water Allocation under Cyclical Scarcity: The Role of Priority Water Rights,” Water, 2020.
 D. L. Bijl, H. Biemans, P. W. Bogaart, S. C. Dekker, and J. C. Doelman, “A Global Analysis of Future Water De fi cit Based On Different Allocation Mechanisms,” pp. 5803–5824, 2018, doi: 10.1029/2017WR021688.
 M. Latif, S. S. Haider, and M. U. Rashid, “Adoption of High Efficiency Irrigation Systems to Overcome Scarcity of Irrigation Water in Pakistan,” vol. 53, no. January, pp. 243–252, 2016.
 J. Rockström et al., “Sustainable intensification of agriculture for human prosperity and global sustainability,” Ambio, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 4–17, 2017, doi: 10.1007/s13280-016-0793-6.
 M. Fontanet, D. Fernàndez-Garcia, G. Rodrigo, F. Ferrer, and J. M. Villar, “Combined simulation and optimization framework for irrigation scheduling in agriculture fields,” Irrig. Sci., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 115–130, 2022, doi: 10.1007/s00271-021-00746-y.
 E. Qasemipour and A. Abbasi, “Assessment of agricultural water resources sustainability in arid regions using virtual water concept: Case of South Khorasan Province, Iran,” Water (Switzerland), vol. 11, no. 3, 2019, doi: 10.3390/w11030449.
 A. Soltani et al., “Future food self-sufficiency in Iran: A model-based analysis,” Glob. Food Sec., vol. 24, pp. 1–9, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.gfs.2020.100351.
 M. Mirzavand and R. Bagheri, “The water crisis in Iran: Development or destruction?,” World Water Policy, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 89–97, 2020, doi: 10.1002/wwp2.12023.
 R. O. Darko, J. Liu, S. Yuan, L. K. Sam-Amoah, and H. Yan, “Irrigated agriculture for food self-sufficiency in the sub-saharan African region,” Int. J. Agric. Biol. Eng., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 1–12, 2020, doi: 10.25165/j.ijabe.20201303.4397.
 S. H. Lee, R. H. Mohtar, and S. H. Yoo, “Assessment of food trade impacts on water, food, and land security in the MENA region,” Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 557–572, 2019, doi: 10.5194/hess-23-557-2019.
 G. Leng, M. Huang, Q. Tang, and L. R. Leung, “A modeling study of irrigation effects on global surface water and groundwater resources under a changing climate,” J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., pp. 1285–1304, 2015, doi: 10.1002/2015MS000437.Received.
 M. Arfanuzzaman and Q. K. Ahmad, “Assessing the regional food insecurity in Bangladesh due to irrigation water shortage in the Teesta catchment area,” vol. 18, pp. 304–317, 2016, doi: 10.2166/wp.2015.072.
 J. Reints, A. Dinar, and D. Crowley, “Dealing with water scarcity and salinity: Adoption of water efficient technologies and management practices by California Avocado growers,” Sustain., vol. 12, no. 9, 2020, doi: 10.3390/SU12093555.
 S. Multsch et al., “Assessment of potential implications of agricultural irrigation policy on surface water scarcity in Brazil,” Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 307–324, 2020, doi: 10.5194/hess-24-307-2020.
 L. Łabȩdzki, “Actions and measures for mitigation drought and water scarcity in agriculture,” J. Water L. Dev., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 3–10, 2016, doi: 10.1515/jwld-2016-0007.
 Z. T. Virk et al., “Water availability, consumption and sufficiency in Himalayan towns: A case of Murree and Havellian towns from Indus River Basin, Pakistan,” Water Policy, vol. 22, pp. 46–64, 2020, doi: 10.2166/wp.2019.012.
 M. Rygaard, P. J. Binning, and H. J. Albrechtsen, “Increasing urban water self-sufficiency: New era, new challenges,” J. Environ. Manage., vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 185–194, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.09.009.
 C. White, “Understanding water scarcity: Definitions and measurements,” Glob. Water Issues Insights, pp. 1–4, 2012, doi: 10.22459/gw.05.2014.28.
 N. Hanasaki et al., “A global water scarcity assessment under Shared Socio-economic Pathways - Part 2: Water availability and scarcity,” Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 2393–2413, 2013, doi: 10.5194/hess-17-2393-2013.
 M. Mojid, “Emerging challenges and way forward for irrigated agriculture of Bangladesh,” Water Util. J., vol. 21, no. January, pp. 17–28, 2019, [Online]. Available: http://www.ewra.net/wuj/pdf/WUJ_2019_21_02.pdf.
 S. Marasini, T. Joshi, and L. Amgain, “Direct seeded rice cultivation method: a new technology for climate change and food security,” J. Agric. Environ., vol. 17, pp. 30–38, 2018, doi: 10.3126/aej.v17i0.19857.
 J. P. R. Thorn, “Adaptation ‘from below’ to changes in species distribution, habitat and climate in agro-ecosystems in the Terai Plains of Nepal,” Ambio, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 1482–1497, 2019, doi: 10.1007/s13280-019-01202-0.
 A. Dixit, M. Upadhya, K. Dixit, A. Pokhrel, and D. R. Rai, “Living with water stress in the hills of the Koshi Basin, Nepal.,” Icimod, p. 36, 2009, [Online]. Available: http://books.icimod.org/demo/uploads/tmp/icimod-living_with_water_stress_in_the_hills_of_the_koshi_basin,_nepal.pdf.
 Icimod, “Good practices in watershed management - Lessons learned in the Mid Hills of Nepal,” 2007.
 J. Merz, G. Nakarmi, and R. Weingartner, “Potential solutions to water scarcity in the rural watersheds of Nepal’s Middle Mountains,” Mt. Res. Dev., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 14–18, 2003, doi: 10.1659/0276-4741(2003)023[0014:PSTWSI]2.0.CO;2.
 S. Ouda, A. E. H. Zohry, and T. Noreldin, Deficit irrigation: A remedy for water scarcity. 2020.