A Review on Autism Spectrum Disorders and Lead Toxicity: An Indian perspective
Volume 5 - Issue 8, August 2022 Edition
[Download Full Paper]
Lead toxicity, Cerebral palsy, BLLs (blood lead levels), Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), CDC
Background: Environmental chemicals and autism have been the subject of a growing number of epidemiological publications over the past decade. These studies are important because it is now understood that environmental factors play a dominant role in causing autism and because they address modifiable risk factors, primary prevention of autism may be possible with better understanding. Purpose: The purpose of this review is to discuss the importance of environmental influences and environmentally vulnerable physiology in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Study design: Review. Conclusion: This review studies an association between environmental toxicants (lead) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children exposed to these toxicants show traits of ASD and have been reported with high body burdens of these toxicants which highlights the need for further research.
. Autism spectrum disorder | Nature Reviews Disease Primers
. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2005.09.033 (core.ac.uk)
. Lead Toxicity in Children: An Unremitting Public Health Problem - ScienceDirect
. Bellinger DC. The protean toxicities of lead: new chapters in a familiar story. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011; 8:2593â€“628.
. Arneson CL, Durkin MS, Benedict RE, et al. Prevalence of cerebral palsy: Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, three sites, United States, 2004. Disabil Health J. 2009; 2:45-48.
. Bellinger DC, Stiles KM, Needleman HL. Low-level lead exposure, intelligence and academic achievement: a long-term follow-up study. Pediatrics. 1992; 90:855.
. Lidsky, TI, Schneider, JS. Lead neurotoxicity in children: basic mechanisms and clinical correlates. Brain. 2003;126(pt 1):5-19. doi:10.1093/brain/awg014
. Dietrich, KN, Krafft, KM, Bornschein, RL. Low-level fetal lead exposure effect on neurobehavioral development in early infancy. Pediatrics. 1987;80:721-730.
. Bellinger, D, Leviton, A, Waternaux, C, Needleman, H, Rabinowitz, M. Longitudinal analyses of prenatal and postnatal lead exposure and early cognitive development. N Engl J Med. 1987;316:1037-1043. doi:10.1056/NEJM198704233161701
. Bellinger, DC, Stiles, KM, Needleman, HL. Low-level lead exposure, intelligence and academic achievement: a long-term follow-up study. Pediatrics. 1992;90:855-861.
. Lanphear, BP, Dietrich, K, Auinger, P, Cox, C. Cognitive deficits associated with blood lead concentrations <10 Âµg/dL in US children and adolescents. Public Health Rep. 2000;115:521-529.
. Mowad E, Haddad I, Gemmel DJ. Management of lead poisoning from ingested fishing sinkers. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1998;152:485-8.
. Ng R, Martin DJ. Lead poisoning from lead-soldered electric kettles. Can Med Assoc J 1977;116:508-9.
. Norman EH, Hertz-Picciotto I, Salmen DA, et al. Childhood lead poisoning and vinyl miniblind exposure. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1997;151:1033-7. 42.
. Nunez CM, Klitzman S, Goodman A. Lead exposure among automobile radiator repair workers and their children in New York City. Am J Ind Med 1993;23:763-77.
. Screening Young Children for Lead Poisoning: Guidance for State and Local Public Health Officials. Atlanta: CDC; 1997.
. The association of environmental toxicants and autism spectrum disorders in children - PubMed (nih.gov)
. Autism in India: a case-control study to understand the association between socio-economic and environmental risk factors - PubMed (nih.gov)