Exploration of Conceptual Perspectives of Human Resource Retention in Hospitality Institutions
Volume 5 - Issue 8, August 2022 Edition
[Download Full Paper]
Hospitality, human capital, human resources, retention.
Human Resources [HR] is the vital capital of an organization. And naturally, it requires continuous investment for capacity enhancement, fulfillment of expectations, and continued retention in the organization. It is more important to retain HR in hospitality institutions as it requires a lot of time, effort, and cost to empower them with technical and human skills competence matching with the nature of service requirement of this special segment of the economy. In this context, the present paper has been crafted on suitable conceptual and theoretical ground to establish relevant pragmatic approaches to promote the retention of HR in the hospitality industry. The primary aim of this work is to explore the underpinning conceptual and theoretical perspectives and pragmatic approaches to staff retention replicable to hospitality institutions. More specifically, the paper examines the retention theories, observes applicable and practiced models with an emphasis on human resource retention in hospitality institutions, and determines the most suitable approaches to HR retention in the light of unique hospitality. Since this study is fully thematic desk research-based, the present scribe has used exploratory research by comprehending the conceptual, theoretical perspectives, standards, and relevant models of staff retention which was assessed through the various secondary sources. The established conceptual perspectives and institutional practices of motivation and retention models can be a benchmark for organizational success and thrive. The suggestions drawn from each theory and model positions staff as a valuable asset that needs to be continuously motivated with the needful intervention of strategies and solutions that best suits them. Many organizations are exploring different concepts and theories, strategies, and established models that explain the application towards better employee retention to gain a competitive advantage. Future research should emphasize the creation and promotion of a sound working environment, better communication, and the rest of human development and motivation-related matters with an aim to retain the trained and matured workforce. Similarly, the culture of inquiry in this respective field of study should be initiated to explore more relevant system approaches to staff recruitment and selection process, empowerment with ownership, and creation of their self-respect and dignity while being the member of an organization so that they would not dare to quit the organization. Of course, any study focused on the long-term cost and benefits of effective staff retention would serve work for both academia and industry. Staff is a prerequisite for the effective management of an organization. They must be empowered and motivated with the right use of resources, strategies, and practiced models of retention. Effective application of the existing theories in the workplace drive HR practitioners to grasp the exact scenarios that could result in desired outcomes leading with positive impacts for staff, organization, society, and hence to the nation.
 M. Ramapriya and S. Sudhamathi, "Theory of employee retention strategies," Journal of Interdisciplinary Cycle Research, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 1112-1119, February 2020.
 C. R. Nyanjom, "Factor influencing employee retention in the state corporation in Kenya," 2013.
 D. Nickson, Human resource management for the hospitality and tourism industries, Burlington: Elsevier Ltd., 2007.
 M. Armstrong, Strategic human resource management- A guide to action, vol. IV, London: Kogan Page Limited, 2008.
 R. Dwivedi, "Recruitment, retention and attrition of nursing staff and its effect on turnover â€“ Case study of Shree hospital," Padmashree Dr.D.Y.Patil University, Navi Mumbai, 2013.
 S. Motter, "Employee retention strategies in the US hotel industry," Johnson & Wales University, 2020.
 W. J. Rothwell, The encyclopedia of human resource management, human resources and employment forms, vol. 2, J. Lindholm, K. K. Yarrish and A. G. Zaballero, Eds., San Francisco: Pfeiffer, 2012.
 G. Christy and W. Blank, "Making the best of the best: Strategies for effective retention," in Recruitment, development and retention of information professionals : Trends in human resources and knowledge management, Hershey, Business Science Reference, 2010, pp. 218-231.
 D. G. Allen, Retaining talent: A guide to analyzing and managing employee turnover, Alezandria: SHRM Foundation, 2008.
 R. K. Pradhan, L. K. Jena and R. Pattnaik, "Generation Y," in Employees and employers in service organization: Emerging challenges and opportunity, Oakville, Apple Academic Press, 2015.
 A. J. Sim, H. Svavorsdottir and R. Strasser, Recruit & retain business model, www.recruitandretain.eu, 2015.
 I. Tiwari, "An analysis of the factors affecting employee retention and turnover in the Irish hospitality industry," 2015.
 M. E. Scott, "Strategies for retaining employees in the hospitality industry," Walden University, 2016.
 D. Swaroopa and B. Sudhir, "Employee retention management: Review of literature," International Journal of Business and Management Invention [IJBMI], vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 35-40, August 2019.
 D. Singh and Amandeep, "Impact of employee turnover on hotel industry- A study of selected hotels of New Delhi," International Journal of Research - GRANTHAALAYAH, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 153-158, April 2017.
 S. D. Edirisinghe, "Factors affecting sales employee turnover in hotel & travel industry: A literature review," IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science [IOSR-JHSS], vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 35-54, May 2019.
 J. M. Mwilu, "Factors influencing employees turnover in the hotel industry in Mackhakos town, Mackhakos country," South Eastern Kenya University, Mackhakos, 2016.
 R. Kaur, "Employee retention models and factors affecting employee retention in IT companies," International Journal of Business Administration and Management, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 161-174, 2017.
 U. J. Bist, "Employee perception on retention policy in commercial banks of Nepal," Pokhara University, Kathmandu, 2015.
 S. Khadka, "Employee retention in banking industry of Nepal," Singhania University, Jhunjhunu, 2013.
 H. S. Akala, "Factors influencing employee retention among the non-teaching staff at the University of Nairobi, Kenya," Kenya, 2012.
 k. Klingel, "Motivational theories and strategies as they relate to leadership," KLINGEL-SLDR, pp. 1-15, 17 January 2021.
 S. Brar, "A conceptual stidy of employee satisfaction with its determinants provided at job and work place," International Journal of Science Technology and Management, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 1-11, May 2019.
 R. M. Badubi, "Theories of motivation and their application in organizations: A risk analysis," International Journal of Innovation and Economics Development, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 44-51, August 2017.
 R. L. Pardee, "Motivation theories of Maslow, Herzberg, McGregor & McClelland. A Literature Review of selected theories dealing with job satisfaction and motivation.," 1990.
 P. Shrestha, Organizational behaviour, Kathmandu: Samjhana Publication Pvt. Ltd, 2015.
 M. F. Haque, M. A. Haque and M. S. Islam, "Motivational Theories â€“ A Critical Analysis," ASA University Review, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 61-68, Januaryâ€“June 2014.
 T. H. Tan and A. Waheed, "Herzbergâ€™s motivation-hygiene theory and job satisfaction in the Malaysian retail sector: The mediating effect of love of money," Asian Academy of Management Journal, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 73-94, 15 January 2011.
 M. Clinton, T. Knight and D. E. Guest, "Job Embeddedness: A new attitudinal measure," International Journal of Selection and Assessment, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 111-117, March 2012.
 S. A. Rehman, S. Sehar and M. Afzal, "Performance appraisal; Application of Victor Vroom expectancy theory," Saudi Journal of Nursing and Health Care, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 431-434, 28 December 2019.
 W. V. Eerde and H. Thierry, "Vroom's expectancy models and work-related criteria: A meta-analysis," Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 81, no. 5, pp. 575-586, February 1990.
 E. Marinakou and C. Giousmpasoglou, "Talent management and retention strategies in luxury hotels: Evidence from four countries," International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 3855-3878, 2019.
 M. K. Mohanty and S. Chaudhary, "Conceptual model of employee engagement- From the perspectives of manufacturing company," RESEARCH REVIEW International Journal of Multidisciplinary, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 290-296, July 2018.
 A. Pizam, Handbook of hospitality human resource management, D. V. Tesone, Ed., Burtington: Elsevier Ltd., 2008.
 Information Resources Management Association, Human resources management: Concepts, methodologies, tools and applications, vol. 1, Hershey: Business Science Reference, 2012.
 C. Lashley, Empowerment: HR strategies for service excellence, Woburn: Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd, 2001.
 M. F. Cook, The AMA handbook for employee recruitment and retention, New York: AMACOM Books, 1992.
 G. C. Busara, "Impact of employees empowerment on organizational performance: A case study of government procurement service agency," 2016.