International Journal of Advanced Research and Publications (2456-9992)

High Quality Publications & World Wide Indexing!

Improving Retention In Royal Canadian Army Cadets Organizational Improvement Plan

Volume 7 - Issue 1, January 2024 Edition
[Download Full Paper]

Christopher J. Collins
organizational change, organizational culture, transformational leadership, retention, after-school program
The Royal Canadian Army Cadet League is a national organization promoting community youth leadership skill development through an afterschool program format called "corps" across communities in Canada. Each corps is attached to a Canadian Forces Reserve Regiment. However, numerous corps are experiencing a decline in retaining their youth members. This decline in retention jeopardizes each corps’ funding from the Department of Defense, possibly closing the community corps. Examining retention through the lens of critical pragmatism will identify areas for improvement. A paradigm shift from primarily transactional-based leadership to transformational and servant leadership is required to improve the organization, ensure sustainability in the corps, and support the Canadian Armed Forces. Using mixed and current best practices for engaging youth and inserting a more applicable framework for teaching and training with a transformative change in mindset for the corps leadership, will improve the organization and ensure sustainability with a model of inclusivity. A leadership framework supported by recognized change path models with reinforcement from continual monitoring and evaluation will ensure a continued corps presence in the community.
[1]. Adenle, C. (2016). 4 components of successful change implementation in organizations (infographic). Slideshare. https://www.slideshare.net/cathy007/4-components-of-successful-change-implementation-in-organizations-infographic

[2]. Admin. (2021, September 23). Advantages and disadvantages of Lewin’s change model. Zambianguardian.Com. https://www.zambianguardian.com/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-lewins-change-model/

[3]. Akram Awla, H. (2014). Learning styles and their relation to teaching styles. International Journal of Language and Linguistics, 2(3), 241. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijll.20140203.23

[4]. Alsalamah, A., & Callinan, C. (2021). The Kirkpatrick model for training evaluation: Bibliometric analysis after 60 years (1959–2020). Industrial and Commercial Training, 54(1), 36–63. https://doi.org/10.1108/ICT-12-2020-0115

[5]. Amanchukwu, R. N., Stanley, G. J., & Ololube, N. P. (2015). A review of leadership theories, principles and styles and their relevance to educational management. Management, 5(1), 6–14.

[6]. Andrade, H., & Valtcheva, A. (2009). Promoting learning and achievement through self- assessment. Theory Into Practice, 48(1), 12–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405840802577544

[7]. Archbald, D. (2013). Vision and leadership: Problem-based learning as a teaching tool. Journal of Leadership Education, 12(2), 136–147.

[8]. Armenakis, A. A., & Harris, S. G. (2009). Reflections: Our journey in organizational change research and practice. Journal of Change Management, 9(2), 127–142. https://doi.org/10.1080/14697010902879079 Army Cadet League of Canada. (2022). https://www.armycadetleague.ca/

[9]. Army Cadets History. (n.d.). Vernon Cadet Camp Museum. Retrieved March 23, 2021, from https://www.vernoncadetmuseum.com/army-cadets-history.html

[10]. Atwater, L. E., & Yammarinol, F. J. (1993). Personal attributes as predictors of superiors’ and subordinates’ perceptions of military academy leadership. Human Relations, 46(5), 645– 668. https://doi.org/10.1177/001872679304600504

[11]. Austen, I. (2022). Canada’s Military, where sexual misconduct went to the top, looks for a new path. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/05/30/canada-military-sexual-misconduct.html

[12]. Bandura, A. (2012). On the functional properties of perceived self-efficacy revisited. Journal of Management, 38(1), 9–44. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206311410606 Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. Free Press.

[13]. Bass, B. M., & Riggio, R. E. (2006). Transformational Leadership. Psychology Press.

[14]. Bayraktar, S., & Kabasakal, H. (2022). Crafting a change message and delivering it with success: An experimental study. The Journal of Applied Behavioural Science, 58(1), 97–119. https://doi-org.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/10.1177/0021886320920361

[15]. Beatty, D. C. A. (2015). Communicating During an Organizational Change. Queens University.

[16]. Berthiaume, L. (2022). Military sounds alarm over recruiting problems as Canadians steer clear. CTVNews. https://www.ctvnews.ca/canada/military-sounds-alarm-over-recruiting-problems-as-canadians-steer-clear-1.6083496

[17]. Blackstone, A. (2012). Principles of sociological inquiry – Qualitative and quantitative methods. Open Textbook Library. https://open.umn.edu/opentextbooks/textbooks/139

[18]. Bolman, L., & Deal, T. (2012). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership (5th ed.). Jossey-Bass.

[19]. Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (2017). Reframing organizations. Jossey-Bass. BOPPPS model for lesson planning. (2022). Implementing active learning. https://www.queensu.ca/teachingandlearning/modules/active/18_boppps_model_for_lesson_planning.html

[20]. Bowman, P. H., & Pellman, M. (1958). Socially underprivileged youth and the schools. The High School Journal, 41(8), 331–335.

[21]. Bracken, D. W., & Rose, D. S. (2011). When does 360-degree feedback create behavior change? and how would we know it when it does? Journal of Business and Psychology, 26(2), 183–192. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-011-9218-5

[22]. Brewster. (2019). Canadian military falling well short of its target for recruiting women | CBC News. CBC News. https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/armed-forces-women-recruiting-1.4691356

[23]. Brewster, M. (2021, March 12). Parts of Canada’s military culture permit “racism, discrimination, harassment,” says acting chief. CBC News. https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/wayne-eyre-sexual-misconduct-canadian-armed-forces-1.5946717

[24]. Brewster, M., & Everson, K. (2021). Senior female officer quits Canadian Forces, says she’s “sickened” by reports of sexual misconduct. CBC News. https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/eleanor-taylor-canadian-forces-sexual-misconduct-1.5952618

[25]. Bull, M., & Brown, T. (2012). Change communication: The impact on satisfaction with alternative workplace strategies. Facilities, 30(3/4), 135–151. https://doi.org/10.1108/02632771211202842

[26]. Burke, A. (2022, April 20). Former top commander Vance acknowledges sexual relationship with subordinate in court document. CBC News. https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/retired-general-jonathan-vance-concedes-to-relationship-subordinate-while-cds-1.6423987

[27]. Burns, J. (2003). Transforming Leadership. Grove/Atlantic Inc.

[28]. Cardon, P. W., & Philadephia, M. (2015). The role of motivational values in the construction of change messages. Business and Professional Communication Quarterly, 78(2), 215–230.

[29]. Cawsey, T. F., Deszca, G., & Ingols, C. (2016a). Organizational change: An action oriented toolkit (3rd ed.). SAGE Publications.

[30]. Cawsey, T. F., Deszca, G., & Ingols, C. (2016b). Frameworks for leading the process of organizational change: “How” to lead organizational change. https://us.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/68409_Cawsey_Chapter_2.pdf

[31]. Chief of Defence Staff. (2015). Gold star instructional guides. Canada. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1cyRDjCthwGyoU6sZveDXCe0E-Ugef7Wr/view?usp=drive_open&usp=embed_facebook

[32]. Conroy, T. J., & Ehrensal, P. A. L. (2021). Values and the ethics of care: four portraits. Values and Ethics in Educational Administration, 16(1). https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1304345

[33]. Criollo-C, S., Guerrero-Arias, A., Jaramillo-Alcázar, Á., & Luján-Mora, S. (2021). Mobile learning technologies for education: Benefits and pending issues. Applied Sciences, 11(9), Article 9. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11094111

[34]. Curtin, N. (2015). Challenging the status quo: The role of intersectional awareness in pro-social intergroup attitudes, and collective action for social change. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 1(18). https://doi.org/10.1177/0361684315580439

[35]. Dauenhauer, B., Kulinna, P., Marttinen, R., & Stellino, M. B. (2022). Before- and after-school physical activity: Programs and best practices. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 93(5), 20–26. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2022.2053474

[36]. Defence, N. (2017, November 23). Military ranks. Education and awareness. https://www.canada.ca/en/services/defence/caf/military-identity-system/rank-appointment-insignia.html

[37]. Defence, N. (2018, May 8). What Cadets do. Government of Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/department-national-defence/services/cadets-junior-canadian-rangers/cadets/what-we-do.html

[38]. Defence, N. (2019, October 7). Duty with Honour. Featured articles. Government of Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/department-national-defence/corporate/reports-publications/duty-with-honour-2009.html

[39]. Defence, N. (2020a, May 8). Become a Cadet Instructor Cadre Officer. Government of Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/department-national-defence/services/cadets-junior-canadian-rangers/how-adults-can-help/become-cadet-instructor-cadre-officer.html

[40]. Defence, N. (2020b, October 6). About the Cadet Program. Government of Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/department-national-defence/services/cadets-junior-canadian-rangers/cadets/about.html

[41]. Defence, N. (2020c, December 21). Army Cadets. Government of Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/department-national-defence/services/cadets-junior-canadian-rangers/cadets/what-we-do/army.html

[42]. Defence, N. (2021a). National Defence. Government of Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/department-national-defence.html

[43]. Defence, N. (2021b, October 8). 11-03 – Cadet Program Mandate. Government of Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/department-national-defence/services/cadets-junior-canadian-rangers/cjcr-policy/catos/volume1/11-series/11-03.html

[44]. Defence, N. (2022, March 24). Cadet Instructor Cadre Officers. Government of Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/department-national-defence/services/cadets-junior-canadian-rangers/leadership-of-the-programs/ciccoats.html

[45]. Deming, W. E. (2018). Out of the crisis. MIT Press.

[46]. Dewi, S. S., Dalimunthe, H. A., & . (2018). The effectiveness of universal design for learning. Journal of Social Science Studies, 6(1), 112–123. https://doi.org/10.5296/jsss.v6i1.14042

[47]. Dudar, L., Scott, S., & Scott, D. E. (2017). Accelerating change in schools: Leading rapid, successful, and complex change initiatives (Vol. 18). Emerald Publishing Ltd.

[48]. Dyne, L. V. (2010). Cultural Intelligence: A pathway for leading in a rapidly globalizing world. Leading across Differences, 4(2), 131–138.

[49]. Elliker, J. (2016). Understanding ontological conflict between servant leadership and organizations. Servant Leadership: Theory & Practice, 3(2), 5

[50]. English, A. (2004). Understanding Military Culture: A Canadian Perspective. McGill-Queen’s Press.

[51]. Entz, S. (2007). Why pedagogy matters: The importance of teaching in a standards-based environment. Forum on Public Policy.

[52]. Eppler, M. J., & Platts, K. W. (2009). Visual strategizing: The systematic use of visualization in the strategic-planning process. Long Range Planning, 42(1), 42–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lrp.2008.11.005

[53]. Faulks, B., Song, Y., Waiganjo, M., Obrenovic, B., & Godinic, D. (2021). Impact of empowering leadership, innovative work, and organizational learning readiness on sustainable economic performance: An empirical study of companies in russia during the covid-19 pandemic. Sustainability, 13(22), Article 22. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212465

[54]. Faupel, S., & Süß, S. (2019). The effect of transformational leadership on employees during organizational change – An empirical analysis. Journal of Change Management, 19(3), 145–166. https://doi.org/10.1080/14697017.2018.1447006

[55]. Feinberg, W. (2015). Critical pragmatism and the appropriation of ethnography by philosophy of education. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 34(2), 149–157. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11217-014-9415-6

[56]. Fenner, E. (2022). Participatory Learning Webinar. https://www.yorku.ca/laps/sosc/wp-content/uploads/sites/216/2022/09/Participatory-Learning_Edward-W-Fenner.pdf

[57]. Ferrari, T., & Turner, C. (2006). An exploratory study of adolescents’ motivations for joining and continued participation in a 4-H afterschool program. Journal of Extension, 44(4). https://archives.joe.org/joe/2006august/rb3.php

[58]. Ford, J. D., & Ford, L. W. (2009, April 1). Decoding resistance to change. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2009/04/decoding-resistance-to-change

[59]. Ford, J., Harding, N., & Learmonth, M. (2012). Who is it that would make business schools more critical? A response to Tatli. British Journal of Management, 23(1), 31–34. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8551.2011.00796.x

[60]. Forehand, M. (2010). Blooms taxonomy. Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching, and Technology, 41(4), 47–56.

[61]. Ghory, S., & Ghafory, H. (2021). The impact of modern technology in the teaching and learning process. International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies, 4(3), Article 3. https://doi.org/10.53894/ijirss.v4i3.73

[62]. Gillard, A., & Witt, P. (2008). Recruitment and retention in youth programs. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 26(2), 177–188.

[63]. Gilley, A., Gilley, J., & McMillan, H. (2009). Organizational change: Motivation, communication, and leadership. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 21(4), 75–94.

[64]. Gilmore, R. (2022). Military recruiting issues may be ‘more serious’ than senior ranks letting on:

[65]. Hillier. Global News. https://globalnews.ca/news/9217070/military-recruitment-canada-armed-forces-hillier/

[66]. Givens, R. J. (2008). Transformational leadership: The impact on organizational and personal outcomes. Emerging Leadership Journeys, 1(1), 4–24.

[67]. Government of Canada. (2020, December 8). Police resources in Canada, 2019. Statistics Canada. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2020001/article/00015-eng.htm

[68]. Government of Canada. (2001, January 15). Census of Population. https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/index-eng.cfm

[69]. Government of Canada. (2017a, February 8). Census Profile, 2016 Census—Ontario. https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=POPC&Code1=0190&Geo2=PR&Code2=35&SearchText=Cobourg&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All&GeoLevel=PR&GeoCode=0190&TABID=1&type=0

[70]. Government of Canada, S. C. (2017b, October 25). Aboriginal Peoples Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016. https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/ref/guides/009/98-500-x2016009-eng.cfm

[71]. Government of Canada, S. C. (2017c, October 25). Visible Minority and Population Group Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016. https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/ref/guides/006/98-500-x2016006-eng.cfm

[72]. Grand Lodge of A.F. & A.M. of Canada in the Province of Ontario—Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario. (2022). https://grandlodge.on.ca/Greenleaf, R. K. (2014). The power of servant-leadership: Essays. RHYW.

[73]. Griffith, A. N., & Johnson, H. E. (2019). Building trust: Reflections of adults working with high- school-age youth in project-based programs. Children and Youth Services Review, 96, 439–450. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.11.056

[74]. Gupta, S., Grier Arthur, L., Chandler, N., Danielson, P., Downard, C., Ehrlich, P., Gaines, B., Gray, B., Javid, P., Lallier, M., Nwomeh, B., Tagge, E., Weiss, R., Tsao, K., Garrison, A. P., & Mak, G. (2022). Is the changing landscape of fellowship recruitment during COVID-19 here to stay? Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 57(10), 445–450. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2021.10.024

[75]. Halton Regional Police. (2014). Halton Regional Police Service 2014 Annual Report. https://www.haltonpolice.ca/en/about-us/resources/Documents/AnnualReports/Annual_Report_2014.pdf

[76]. Halvorsin, A. (2010). Understanding the military: The institution, the culture, and the people. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

[77]. Harris, A. (2011). System improvement through collective capacity building. Journal of Educational Administration, 49(6), 624–636. https://doi.org/10.1108/09578231111174785

[78]. Harris, A., & DeFlaminis, J. (2014). Distributed leadership in practice: Evidence, misconceptions and possibilities. Management in Education, 30(4), 141–146.

[79]. Hartmann, E. (2015). Universal design for learning (UDL) and learners with severe support needs. International Journal of Whole Schooling, 11(1), 54–67.

[80]. Hartsfield, M. (2003). The Spirit of transformational leadership: Emotions or cognition.

[81]. Hickson, D. J., Hinings, C. R., Lee, C. A., Schneck, R. E., & Pennings, J. M. (1971). A strategic contingencies’ theory of intraorganizational power. Administrative Science Quarterly, 16(2), 216–229. https://doi.org/10.2307/2391831

[82]. Hirsch, P. (2018). The swansong of the fascist octopus: Creating effective change communications. Journal of Business Strategy, 39(4), 66–70. https://doi.org/10.1108/JBS-05-2018-0074

[83]. Hitchcock, C., & Stahl, S. (2003). Assistive technology, universal design, universal design for learning: Improved learning opportunities. Journal of Special Education Technology, 18(4), 45–52. https://doi.org/10.1177/016264340301800404

[84]. Holt, D. T., Armenakis, A. A., Feild, H. S., & Harris, S. G. (2007). Readiness for organizational change: The systematic development of a scale. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 43, 232–255. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021886306295295

[85]. Ivey, G. W., & Kline, T. J. B. (2010). Transformational and active transactional leadership in the Canadian military. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 31(3), 246–262. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437731011039352

[86]. Jensen, U. T., Moynihan, D. P., & Salomonsen, H. H. (2018). Communicating the vision: How face-to-face dialogue facilitates transformational leadership. Public Administration Review, 78(3), 350–361. https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.12922

[87]. Kahoot! Learning games, make learning awesome! (2023). https://kahoot.com/

[88]. Sutherland, S., & Katz, S. (2005). Concept mapping methodology: A catalyst for organizational learning. Evaluation and Program Planning, 28(3), 257–269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2005.04.017

[89]. Khatib, M. E., Kherbash, A., Qassimi, A. A., & Mheiri, K. A. (2022). How can collaborative work and collaborative systems drive operational excellence in project management? Journal of Service Science and Management, 15(3), Article 3. https://doi.org/10.4236/jssm.2022.153017

[90]. Kirkpatrick, J., & Kirkpatrick, W. (2015). An introduction to the new world Kirkpatrick model.

[91]. Kirkpatrick Partners. https://www.kirkpatrickpartners.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/Introduction-to-the-Kirkpatrick-New-World-Model.pdf

[92]. Klein, S. M. (1996). A management communication strategy for change. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 9(2), 32–46. https://doi.org/10.1108/09534819610113720

[93]. Kotter, J. P. (2007). Leading change why transformational efforts fail. Harvard Business Review, 85(1), 1–10.

[94]. Kotter, J. P., & Schlesinger, L. A. (2008, July 1). Choosing strategies for change. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2008/07/choosing-strategies-for-change

[95]. Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2017). The Leadership Challenge: How to make extraordinary things happen in organizations (6th ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

[96]. Kramer, M. W., & Crespy, D. A. (2011). Communicating collaborative leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(5), 1024–1037. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.07.021

[97]. Lauver, S. C., & Little, P. M. D. (2005). Recruitment and retention strategies for out-of-school- time programs. New Directions for Youth Development, 105, 71–89, 11–12. https://doi.org/10.1002/yd.108

[98]. Levasseur, R. E. (2001). People skills: Change management tools—Lewin’s change model. Interfaces, 31(4), 71–73. https://doi.org/10.1287/inte.

[99]. Lions Clubs International. (2022). https://www.lionsclubs.org/en

[100]. Instructional skills workshop network. (2023). ISW. https://www.iswnetwork.ca/about/

[101]. Lorsch, J. W. (1986). Managing culture: The invisible barrier to strategic change. California Management Review, 28(2).

[102]. Ma, X., Ma, X., Ma, X., Li, L., Xinyi, L., Hao, Z., & Liu, Y. (2021). Effect of blended learning with BOPPPS model on Chinese student outcomes and perceptions in an introduction course of health services management. Advances in Physiology Education., 45, 409–417. https://doi.org/10.1152/advan.00180.2020

[103]. Markiewicz, A., & Patrick, I. (2015). Developing monitoring and evaluation frameworks. SAGE Publications.

[104]. Martinez, E. A., Beaulieu, N., Gibbons, R., Pronovost, P., & Wang, T. (2015). Organizational culture and performance. American Economic Review, 105(5), 331–335. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.p20151001

[105]. Maull, R., Brown, P., & Cliffe, R. (2001). Organisational culture and quality improvement. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 21(3), 302–326. https://doi.org/10.1108/01443570110364614

[106]. McCristall, P. (2020). (In)Visible systemic injustice: A qualitative inquiry into women’s experiences of gender discrimination in the Canadian military. Queen’s University. https://www.proquest.com/openview/7a78221a90fea301d2a33868994c173a/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=y

[107]. McCristall, P., & Baggaley, K. (2019). The progressions of a gendered military: A theoretical examination of gender inequality in the Canadian Military. Journal of Military, Veteran and Family Health, 5(1), 119–126. https://doi.org/10.3138/jmvfh.2017-0026

[108]. McDonald, K. (2013). The Army Cadet League of Canada. Government of Canada. Mollenkamp, D. (2022). Social Justice. Investopedia. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/social-justice.asp

[109]. National Defence. (2013). Evaluation of the Canadian Cadet Organizations (CCO) (p. 76) Organizational Review. https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/dnd-mdn/migration/assets/FORCES_Internet/docs/en/about-reports-pubs-audit-eval/p0958-eng.pdf

[110]. National Defence. (2020). Evaluation of the cadets and junior Canadian Rangers. National Defence. https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/dnd-mdn/documents/reports/2020/reports-pubs-audit-eval/report-1258-3-036-en.pdf

[111]. National Defence. (2022). Canadian Armed Forces retention strategy. https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/dnd-mdn/documents/reports/caf-retnetion-strategy/caf-retention-strategy-en-2022.pdf

[112]. National Defence. (2018, December 13). Evaluation of the Canadian Cadet Organizations (CCO). https://www.canada.ca/en/department-national-defence/corporate/reports-publications/audit-evaluation/evaluation-canadian-cadet-organizations-cco.html

[113]. News •, M. B. • C. (2018, June 5). Canadian Military falling well short of its target for recruiting women. CBC News. https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/armed-forces-women-recruiting-1.4691356

[114]. Northouse, P. G. (2019). Leadership: Theory and practice (8th ed). SAGE Publications Inc. Planning Online Lessons. (2022). Centre for Teaching and Learning, Western University. https://teaching.uwo.ca/curriculum/coursedesign/planning-online-lessons.html

[115]. Pollack, J., & Pollack, R. (2015). Using Kotter’s eight stage process to manage an organisational change program: presentation and practice. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 28(1), 51–66. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11213-014-9317-0

[116]. Press, T. C. (2013, December 26). Canadian cadets left out in the cold with used uniforms, parkas. CBC News. https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/military-budget-cuts-leave-cadets-without-new-parkas-uniforms-1.2476663

[117]. Protheroe, N. (2006). Successful after-school programs. Principal - Arlington, 85(4), 34. Prywes, Y. (2011). Organization History (OHx). 43(2), 7.

[118]. Roberts, T. (2022, March 28). As the military struggles with recruitment, Atlantic Canada answers the call. CBC News. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/newfoundland-labrador/military-enlistment-atlantic-1.6394787

[119]. Rose, D. (2000). Universal design for learning. Journal of Special Education Technology, 15(3), 45–49. https://doi.org/10.1177/016264340001500307

[120]. Rowland, P., & Parry, K. (2009). Consensual commitment: A grounded theory of the meso-level influence of organizational design on leadership and decision-making. The Leadership Quarterly, 20(4), 535–553. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2009.04.004

[121]. Ruck, E., & Merlo, J. (2018). Cause analysis methods and tools.pdf. North American Reliability Corporation. https://www.wecc.org/Administrative/Cause%20Analysis%20Methods%20and%20Tools.pdf

[122]. Savage, G. T., Nix, T. W., Whitehead, C. J., & Blair, J. D. (1991). Strategies for assessing and managing organizational stakeholders. Academy of Management Perspectives, 5(2), 61–75. https://doi.org/10.5465/ame.1991.4274682

[123]. Schein, E. H., & Schein, P. A. (2017). Organizational culture and leadership (5th ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

[124]. Scriven, M. (2007). The Logic of Evaluation. University of Windsor https://scholar.uwindsor.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1390&context=ossaarchive

[125]. Segal, D. R., & Segal, M. W. (1983). Change in military organization. Annual Review of Sociology, 9(1), 151–170. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.09.080183.001055

[126]. Senge, P. M. (1991). The fifth discipline. The art and practice of the learning organization.

[127]. Random House
[128]. Sherlock-Shangraw, R. (2013). Creating inclusive youth sport environments with the universal design for learning. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 84(2), 40–46. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2013.757191

[129]. Shtal, T. V., Buriak, M. M., Amirbekuly, Y., Ukubassova, G. S., Kaskin, T., & Toiboldinova, Z. G. (2018). Methods of analysis of the external environment of business activities. Revista Espacios, 39, 1–22.

[130]. Smith, B. N., Montagno, R. V., & Kuzmenko, T. N. (2004). Transformational and servant leadership: content and contextual comparisons. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 10(4), 80–91. https://doi.org/10.1177/107179190401000406

[131]. Smith, C. (2005). The leadership theory of Robert K. Greenleaf. Management Information Organization, 12(2), 145–152.

[132]. Soeters, J. L., Winslow, D. J., & Weibull, A. (2006). Military culture. In G. Caforio (Ed.), Handbook of the Sociology of the Military (pp. 237–254). Springer US. https://doi.org/10.1007/0-387-34576-0_14

[133]. Song, J., Walsh, J., Reynolds, K., Tilghman-Havens, J., Ray, S., & Spears, L. (2022). Servant- Leadership, feminism, and gender well-being: How leaders transcend global inequities through hope, unity, and love. State University of New York Press.

[134]. Spencer-Oatey, H., & Franklin, P. (2012). What is culture. A compilation of quotations. GlobalPAD Core Concepts, 1, 2

[135]. Sprang, L. A. (n.d.). Addressing early attrition in the navy. Western University. The Organizational Improvement Plan at Western University, 144.

[136]. Stauffer, D. C., & Maxwell, D. L. (2020). Transforming servant leadership, organizational culture, change, sustainability, and courageous leadership. Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics, 17(1), 105–116. https://doi.org/10.33423/jlae.v17i1.2793

[137]. Steele, R. (2006). White paper: Extent of condition evaluations. Sandia National Laboratories. https://efcog.org/wp-content/uploads/Wgs/Safety%20Working%20Group/_Regulatory%20and%20Enforcement%20Subgroup/Documents/EXTENT%20OF%20CONDITION.pdf

[138]. Story, M. F., Mueller, J. L., & Mace, R. L. (1998). The Universal Design File: Designing for People of All Ages and Abilities. Revised Edition. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ed460554

[139]. Thorne, S. (2022). Military struggles to fill more than 10,000 positions. Legion Canada’s Military History Magazine. https://legionmagazine.com/en/military-struggles-to-fill-more-than-10000-positions/

[140]. Tickle, E. L., Brownlee, J., & Nailon, D. (2005). Personal epistemological beliefs and transformational leadership behaviours. Journal of Management Development, 24(8), 706–719. https://doi.org/10.1108/02621710510613735

[141]. Titunik, R. F. (2008). The myth of the macho military. Polity, 40(2), 137–163. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.polity.2300090TNT Justice Consultants. (2023). TNT statement on anti-racism and equity. https://tntconsulting.ca/our-anti-racism-statement/

[142]. Tourish, D. (2013). The dark side of transformational leadership A critical perspective (1st ed.).Routledge.

[143]. Trent, R. J. (2004). Team leadership at the 100?foot level. Team Performance Management: An International Journal, 10(5/6), 94–103. https://doi.org/10.1108/13527590410556818

[144]. Van Wart, M. (1995). The first step in the reinvention process: Assessment. Public Administration Review, 55(5), 429–438. https://doi.org/10.2307/976767

[145]. Vandell, D. L., Shernoff, D. J., Pierce, K. M., Bolt, D. M., Dadisman, K., & Brown, B. B. (2005). Activities, engagement, and emotion in after-school programs (and elsewhere). New Directions for Youth Development, 105, 121–129, 13–14. https://doi.org/10.1002/yd.111

[146]. Whipp, R. (2006). Managing Strategic Change. In A. Campbell & D. O. Faulkner (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of strategy: A strategy overview and competitive strategy. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199275212.003.0025

[147]. Wood, P. (2017). Overcoming the problem of embedding change in educational organizations: A perspective from normalization process theory. Management in Education, 0, 089202061668528. https://doi.org/10.1177/0892020616685286

[148]. Yeop, M. A., Wong, K.-T., & Goh, P. S. C. (2016). Blended learning: Pedagogy, learning styles, and assessment activities in the classroom. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 3(11), 36–39. https://doi.org/10.21833/ijaas.2016.11.007

[149]. Yüksel, I. (2012). Developing a multi-criteria decision making model for PESTEL analysis. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(24), Article 24. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v7n24p52