IJARP
SJIF(2020): 5.702

International Journal of Advanced Research and Publications

High Quality Publications & World Wide Indexing!

Effects Of Feeding Graded Levels Of Crude Oil-Containing Diets On Hematological Parameters Of Growing Pigs

Volume 4 - Issue 3, March 2020 Edition
[Download Full Paper]

Author(s)
Johnson, N. C., Joy A. Okejim, J. A., Amakiri, A. O.
Keywords
Contamination, Crude Oil, Hematological Parameters and Pig
Abstract
Effects of feeding graded levels of crude oil-containing diets were studied on haematological parameters in growing pigs. 24 pigs of average body weight (BW) of 9 ± 1.4 (Mean ± SD) kg were used in the study. Animals were randomly assigned to their individual experimental pens. There were 4 graded crude oil dietary treatments: 0g (control group), 10g, 15g and 20g of crude oil/kg of diet. There were 4 replications per dietary treatment. Animals were fed at 5% of their BW for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected from all animals and snap frozen. Red blood cell (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cell (WBC) and differentials: neutrophils (NEU) and lymphocytes (LYM) were analysed. Eosinophil (EOS), basophils (BAS) and monocytes (MON) were absent. There were significant (P < 0.05) differences in the RBC, Hb and PCV contents. The RBC counts of treatments 1 and 2 were similar (P > 0.05) and were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of treatments 3 and 4 with treatment 4 having the lowest RBC counts. Similar trend was also observed for Hb and PVC concentrations. WBC counts of treatments 1 and 2 were similar (P > 0.05) and significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of treatments 3 and 4; with treatment 4 showing the lowest count. NEU of treatment 1 was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of treatments 2, 3 and 4 with treatment 4 having the lowest. Conversely, treatment 4 significantly (P < 0.05) showed the highest LYM concentration compared with treatments 1 to 3 with treatment 1 showing the lowest concentration. It was concluded that growing pig’s threshold for crude oil ingestion lies between 10g and 15g of crude oil/kg of diet as beyond the 10g blood constituents were negatively impacted and the ratio of NEU to LYM was altered.
References
[1]. A. O. Adegoke, E. O. Bamigbowu, M. George-Opuda, T. A. Awopeju and S. A. Braise. 2012. Effect of cassava based diet on some haematological parameters in albino rats fed petroleum contaminated diet. Inter. J. Appl. Res. in Natural Products. 5(1):22-26

[2]. P. O. Akporhuarho. 2011. Effects of crude oil polluted water on the haematology of cockerel reared under semi-intensive system. Inter. J. Poult. Sci. 10(7):527-529.

[3]. P. O. Akporhuarho, O. Okpara and S. O. Oridje. 2015. Performance and blood indices of finisher broilers given graded level of crude oil contaminated water. J. Bio. Agric. Healthcare, 5(16):22-93.

[4]. L. A. O. Amu. 2006. A review of Nigeria’s petroleum industry, NNPC, Lagos. Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) Annual Report, Abuja, 191.

[5]. G. M. Babatunde, A. O. Fajimi, and A. O. Oyejide. 1992. Rubber seed oil versus palm oil in brooder chicken diet. Effect on performance nutrient digestibility, hematology and carcass characteristics. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 35:133-146.

[6]. N. A. Berepubo, N. C. Johnson and B. T. Sese. 1994. Growth potentials and organ weights of weaner rabbits exposed to crude oil contaminated feed. Int. J. Anim. Sci. 9:73-76.

[7]. P. J. A. Bollen and A. K. Hansen. 1999. The laboratory animal swine, the laboratory animal pocket reference series: New York Academic Press, Pp. 45-52.

[8]. G. L. Cromwell. 2002. Why and how antibiotics are used in swine production. Anim. Biotechnol. 13:7-27.

[9]. B. U. Ekenyem, and C. Madubuike. 2006. Hematology and serum biochemistry of grower pigs fed varying levels of Ipomea asarifolia leaf meal. Pakistan J. Nutr. 6(6):603-606.

[10]. S. O. Ita and U. A. Udofia. 2011. Comparative study of some haematological parameters in rats following ingestion of crude oil (Nigerian Bonny light) petrol, kerosene and diesel. Asian J. Biological Sci. 4(6):498-505.

[11]. N. C. Johnson, S. O. Popoola and O. J. Owen. 2019. Effects of single and combined antioxidant vitamins on growing pig performance and pork quality. Inter. J. Advance. Res. Public. 3(8):86-89.

[12]. A. A. Kadafa. 2012. Environmental impacts of oil exploration and exploitation in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Global J. Sci. Frontier Res. 12(3):19-28.

[13]. S. K. Kommera, R. D. Mateo, F. J. Neher and S. W. Kim. 2006. Phytobiotics and organic acids as potential alternatives to the use of antibiotics in nursery pig diets. Asian-Austra. J. Anim. Sci. 19:1784-1789.

[14]. F. M. Ngodigha, F. O. Olayinka, B. M. Oruwari, I. K. Ekweozor and S. N. Wekhe. 1999. Toxic effects of crude oil on organ weights and blood cells of West African Dwarf Goat. Nig. Vet. J. 20(10:82-91.

[15]. NRC, (2012). Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 11th (Ed.) Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC.

[16]. J. A. Okejim, N. C. Johnson and A. O. Amakiri. 2019. Responses of grower pigs fed crude oil contaminated diets and the ameliorative effects of vitamin E and Selenium. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Animal Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

[17]. D. U. Owe, U. Udoefe, N. Azah and E. U. Eyong. 2005. Effect of Bonny Light crude oil on some hematological parameters of guinea pigs. Biochem. 17(2):165-170.

[18]. S. S. Ovuru and I. K. E. Ekweozor. 2004. Haematological change associated with crude oil ingestion in experimentation rabbits. Afr. J. Biotech. 3(6):346-348.

[19]. G. Saita. 1974. Benzene induced hypoplastic anaemia and leukaemia in blood disorder due to drugs and other agents. In Girdwood R. A. (Ed.). Excerpta Medic Riedel Publications, Amsterdam, Pp. 127-145.

[20]. United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). 2011. Environmental Assessment of Ogoni land, Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP, 8-17.