SJIF(2020): 5.702

International Journal of Advanced Research and Publications

High Quality Publications & World Wide Indexing!

Liver And Kidney Functions Of Growing Pigs Fed Graded Levels Of Crude Oil-Contaminated Diets

Volume 4 - Issue 3, March 2020 Edition
[Download Full Paper]

Johnson, N. C., Joy A. Okejim, J. A., Amakiri, A. O.
Crude Oil-Contaminated Diets, kidney biomarkers, Liver biomarkers and Pig.
This study was designed to investigate the effects of ingesting graded levels of crude oil-contaminated diets on the liver and kidney functions of the growing pig using their biomarkers. 24 growing pigs weighing on average 8 ± 1.1 (mean ± SD) kg of body weight (BW) were acquired and used in the study. The pigs on arrival at the animal wing of the Rivers State University Teaching and Research Farm were randomly assigned to six dietary treatment groups of 4 pigs per treatment. Dietary treatment groups were as: 0g, 2g, 4g, 6g, 8g and 10g of crude oil/kg of diet, respectively. The experimental animals were fed at 5% of their BW and the experiment lasted for 28 d. Blood samples were collected from all treatment groups into EDTA treated tubes and immediately snaps frozen for later analyses of biomarkers for the liver: Alanine amino transferase (ALT), Aspartic amino transferase (AST) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as for kidney biomarkers: blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels. There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences in all the liver biomarkers measured, ALT, AST and ALP. Similarly, there were no significant (P > 0.05) differences in the two biomarkers of the kidney measured, BUN and creatinine contents for all dietary treatment groups. It was therefore concluded that crude oil contaminations up to 10g/kg of diet did not affect the liver and kidney of growing pigs, since their functions were not impeded.
[1]. B. Aaron. 1930. Method of determining alkaline phosphatate in serum. J. Bio. Chem. 89:235- 247

[2]. M. Ben-David, L. K. Duffy and R. T. Bowyer. 2001. Biomarker responses in river otters experimentally exposed to oil contamination. J. Wildl. 37:489-506.

[3]. C. N. Ekhato, U. C. Osifo and U. Akpamu. 2014. Effect of oral contraceptive pills (containing low doses of synthetic hormones) on liver function in adult female rabbits. Asian J. Biotech. 6 (1): 15-20.
[4]. C. W. Hungu, P. K. Gathumbi, N. Maingi and C. J. Nganga. 2013. Production characteristics and constraints ofrabbit farming in central Nairobi and rift-valley province of Kenya. Livest. Res. Rural Dev. 25(1): 7-11

[5]. N. C. Johnson, S. O. Popoola and O. J. Owen. 2019. Effects of single and combined antioxidant vitamins on growing pig performance and pork quality. Inter. J. Advance. Res. Public. 3(8):86-89.

[6]. W. R. Kim, S. L. Flamm, A. M. Di Bisceglie and H. C. Bodenheimer. 2008. Serum activity of alanine amino transferase as an indicator of health and disease. Public policy committee of the American association for the study of liver disease. Hepatology 47 (4): 1363 - 1370

[7]. S. Lalita, K.V. Amit, R. Anu, K. Amit and N. Rajesh. 2016. Relationship between serum biomarkers and oxidative stress in dairy cattle and buffaloes with clinical mastitis. Biotechnol. 15 (3-4): 96-100

[8]. L. Aslan, and I. Meral. 2007. Effect of oral vitamin E supplementation on oxidative stress in guinea pigs with short term hypothermia. Cell Biochem. Funct. 25: 771-715

[9]. W.Y. Lin, C.S. Chen, S. B. Wu, Y. P. Lin, R. M. Levin and Y. H. Wei. 2011. Oxidative stress biomarkers in urine and plasma of rabbits with partial out let obstruction. BJU Int. 107 (11):1839-1843.

[10]. M. Machado and B. Horizonte. 1958. Simple and rapid method of determination of urea by urease. Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras 4: 364- 367.

[11]. J. Max. 2011. Creatinine determination using picric acid in an alkaline environment. Oxford J. 4(2): 83-86

[12]. S. Michael and S. C. Navdeep. 2014. Reactive oxygen species in Redox Signaling and oxidative stress. J. Curr. Bio. 24 (10): R453 – R 423

[13]. NRC, (2012). Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 11th Ed. Natl. Acad. Press. Washington, DC.

[14]. S. Reitman and S. Frankel. 1957. A colorimetric method for determination of serum glutamate oxaloacetate and glutamic pyruvate transaminase. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 28: 56-58

[15]. B. T. Sese, O. S. George and M. W. Wariboko. 2013. Serum enzymes and some biochemical parameters responses of male Chinchilla rabbits exposed to crude oil contaminated feed. J. Food Sci. Qual. Magt. 14:27-32.

[16]. M. Shokrzadeh, S. Shobi, H. Alfar, S. Shayegan, S. S. Payam and F. Ghorbani. 2012. Effect of vitamin A, E, and C on liver enzymes activity in rat exposed to organophosphate pesticide (Diazinon). Pak. J. Biol. Sci.15 (19): 936-941.

[17]. S. S. Ovuru and I. K. E. Ekweozor. 2004. Haematological change associated with crude oil ingestion in experimentation rabbits. Afr. J. Biotech. 3(6):346-348.

[18]. R. V. Zikic, A. S. Stajn, S. Z. Pavlovic, B. I. Ogndanovic and Z. S. Saicic. 2011. Activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in erythrocyte and plasma transaminases of gold fish exposed to cadmium. Physiol. Res. 50: 105-111.

[19]. B. Fulya, M. Fatih, C. Songul, O. Mustafa, C.Y. Nuran and T.O. Sema. 2012. Chemotherapeutic agent-induced nephrotoxicity in rabbits: protective role of grape seed extract. Int. J. Pharm. 8 (1): 39-45.