International Journal of Advanced Research and Publications (2456-9992)

High Quality Publications & World Wide Indexing!

Decontamination Strategies To Reduce The Impact Of Deoxynivalenol (DON)-Contaminated Grain On Farm Animals Particularly Swine – A Review

Volume 4 - Issue 3, March 2020 Edition
[Download Full Paper]

Johnson, N. C., Iorliam, B.
Decontamination, DON, Grain, Strategies and Swine
Due to the negative impacts of DON on the growth performance of pigs it is recommended that DON in the diets of pigs should not be above 1 ppm. It is however further recommended that for pregnant and lactating pigs, their diets should be ‘DON-free.’ However, based on data from recent studies it is recommended that DON should not be more than 2 ppm in the diets meant for barrows. Nevertheless, although DON effects on swine is dose-dependent and for the fact that DON occurrence in grains can be sporadic in some growing seasons, the establishment of the threshold of DON would be difficult. In support of findings of some studies, barrows could tolerate DON level of 2 ppm in their diets without reduction in performance. Therefore, in growing seasons of heavy fusarium challenge grains can be highly contaminated by DON thereby making it difficult to feed or use such grains in the diets of swine. Strategies are therefore required to reduce DON loads of such grain if they are intended for swine feeding. During such seasons DON in grains can be as high as 5 ppm. An effective strategy of DON decontamination of the grain therefore may be capable of converting such grains to usable feedstuffs for swine, especially barrows. This paper highlights strategies that can be adopted to better manage DON in grains. The strategy to adopt is dependent on the available technology in the environment. They come under biological, chemical and physical strategies.
[1] J. P. F. D’Mello, C. M. Placinta, and A. M. C. Macdonald. 1999. Fusarium mycotoxins: A review of global implications for animal health, welfare and productivity. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 80:183-205.

[2] S. Danicke, H. Valenta, F. Klobasa, S. Doll, M. Ganter and G. Flachowsky. 2004. Effects of graded levels of fusarium toxin contaminated wheat in diets for fattening pigs on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, deoxynivalenol balance and clinical serum characteristics. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 58:1-17.

[3] Y. Dersjant-Li, M. W. A. Verstegen and W. J. J. Gerrits. 2003. The impact of low concentrations of aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol or fumonisin in diets on growing pigs and poultry. Nutr. Res. Rev. 16:223-239.

[4] J. W. ApSimon. 1994. In: Mycotoxins in Grain. Compounds other than aflatoxin. Miller, J. D. and Trenholm, H. I. (Eds.) Eagan Press, St. Paul, MN, USA, pp. 3-18.

[5] L. L. Charmley, A. Rosenberg and H. L. Trenholm. 1994. In: Mycotoxins in Grain. Compounds other than aflatoxin. Miller, J. D. and Trenholm, H. L. (Eds.) Eagan Press, St. Paul, MN, USA, pp. 471-486.

[6] L. L. Charmley and D. B. Prelusky. 1994. In: Mycotoxins in Grain: Compounds other than aflatoxin. Miller, J. D. and Trenholm, H. L. (Eds.). Eagan press, St. Paul, MN, USA, pp. 421-436.

[7] NRC, (2012). Nutrient Requirements of Swine (11th Ed.). Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC.

[8] J. F. Lampe, J. W. Mabry, T. Baas and P. Holden. 2004. Comparison of grain sources (barley, white corn and yellow corn) for swine diets and their effects on meat quality and production traits, Iowa State University Animal Industry Report, ASL-R1954.

[9] J. D. House, D. Abramson, G. H. Crow and C. M. Nyachoti. 2002. Feed intake, growth and carcass parameters of swine consuming diets containing low levels of deoxynivalenol from naturally contaminated barley. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 82:559-565.

[10] J. D. House, C. M. Nyachoti and D. Abramson. 2003. Deoxynivalenol removal from barley intended as swine feed through the use of an abrasive pearling procedure. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51:5172-5175.

[11] R. R. Chavez and J. A. Rheaume. 1986. The significance of the reduced feed consumption observed in growing pigs fed vomitoxin-containing diets. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 66:277-287.

[12] R. M. McNear, R. F. Wilson and G. A. Stitzlein. 1981. Short term swine appetite responses to dietary additive in moldy. Ohio Swine Res. Ind. Rep. Anim. Sci. Ser. 81(2):79-82.

[13] P. Karlovsky. 1999. Biological detoxification of fungal toxins and its use in plant breeding, feed and food production. Nat. Toxins. 7:1-23.

[14] P. He, L. G. Young and C. Forsberg. 1993. Microbially detoxified vomitoxin-contaminated corn for young pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 71:963-967.

[15] B. C. Forster, H. L. Trenholm, D. W. Friend, B. K. Thompson and K. E. Hartin. 1987. The effect of a propionate feed preservative in vomitoxin containing corn diets fed to swine. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 67:1159-1163.

[16] H. E Ping, L. G. Young and C. Forsberg. 1992. Microbial detoxification of vomitoxin contaminated corn for pigs. Ontario Swine Research Review, Ontario Agricultural College Publ. 0292, Pp. 21-22.

[17] H. V. Swamy, T. K. Smith, E. J. MacDonald, H. J. Boermans and E. J. Squires. 2002. Effects of feeding a blend of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on swine performance, brain regional neurochemistry and serum chemistry and the efficacy of a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin in adsorbent. J. Anim. Sci. 80:3257-3267.

[18] J. C. Young, L. M. Subryan, D. Potts, M. E. McLaren and F. H. Gobran. 1986. Reduction in levels of deoxynivalenol in contaminated wheat by chemical and physical treatment. J. Agric. Food Chem. 34:461-465.

[19] D. Abramson, J. D. House and C. M. Nyachoti, 2005. Reduction of deoxynivalenol in barley by treatment with aqueous sodium carbonate and heat. Mycopathologia. 160:297:301.

[20] L. M. Seitz, W. T. Yamazaki, R. L. Clements, H. E. Mohr and L. Andrews. 1985. Distribution of deoxynivalenol in soft wheat mill streams. Cereal Chem. 62:467-469.

[21] H. L. Trenholm, L. L. Charmley, D. B. Prelusky and R. M. Warner. 1992. Washing procedures using water or sodium carbonate solutions for the decontamination of three cereals contaminated with deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. J. Agric. Food Chem. 40:2147-2151.