Leadership Behaviour The Panacea For Employee Performance In Selected Public Technical Universities In Ghana
Volume 4 - Issue 6, June 2020 Edition
[Download Full Paper]
Godwin Kwesi Yawotse, John A. Micah, Dr. Elizabeth Cornelia Annan-Prah
Leadership behaviour, employee performance, monitoring operations, problem solving, delegating, directing, empathy and support,
Employee performance is very key to the survival and growth of institutions. Leadership behaviour plays a dynamic role for the attainment of employee performance. The purpose of this research was to describe the nature of leadership behaviour pattern and employee performance in selected Public Technical Universities in Ghana. The study relied on both primary and secondary data. The primary data was obtained from questionnaires, interview schedules and personal observations whilst secondary data was obtained from literature. There was some amount of data conversion, thus, changing raw data that was collected into usable format fed into the computer statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) for processing. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed to ascertain the leadership behaviour patterns practiced at public technical universities in Ghana. Delegating of responsibilities, monitoring operations, empowering followers, solving the problems that workers were faced with in the course of discharging their duties, issuing instructions and directions to subordinates and showing empathy and support were the behaviours that were exhibited by leaders. With much emphasis on delegating assignments, monitoring operation and empowering of followers were frequently exhibited by leaders. These behaviours led to increase in the performance of employees at the Universities. The behaviours of leaders contributed to the attainment of job performance. The study recommends that the Management of Public Technical Universities should encourage leaders to ensure a balance in the practice of task-oriented and relation-oriented behaviours. Management should intermittently organize training programmes for leaders at various level of the University for Leaders to appreciate and improve upon their leadership skills in the area such as problem solving, monitoring skills and interpersonal relations Employees/subordinates should be made to appreciate that monitoring was relevant for the attainment of productivity.
 Afshan, S., Sobia, L., Kamran, A., & Nasir, M. (2012). Impact of training on employee performance: a study of telecommunication sector in Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 4(6), 646-661.
 Akdere, M. (2011). An analysis of decision-making process in organizations: Implications for quality management and systematic practice. Total Quality Management, 22(12), 1317-1330
 Ahuja, K. (2006). Personnel management, (3rd ed.), New Delhi: Kalyani Publishers.
 Amabile, T. M., Schatzel, E. A., Moneta, G. B., & Kramer,S. J. (2004). Leader behaviours and the work environment for creativity: Perceived leader support. Leadership Quarterly, 15(1), 5â€“32
 Appelbaum, E. Bailey, T. Berg, P. & A. Kalleberg (2000). Manufacturing advantage: Why high-performance work systems pay off. ILR Press, Ithaca.
 Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. (2014). Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Philadelphia, Kogan, Page Publishers.
 Arnold, J. A., Arad, S., Rhoades, J. A., & Drasgow, F. (2000). The empowering leadership questionnaire: The construction and validation of a new scale for measuring leader behaviors. Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 21(3), 249-269.
 Avolio, (2004). Transformational Leadership and Organisational Commitment Mediating Role of Psychological Empowerment and Moderating Role of Structural Distance, Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 25, 951â€“968
 Ayupu, Kartinah, & Chung, Then Hsio (2010). Empowerment: Hotel Employeesâ€™ Perspective. Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management v3n3, 561-575
 Babbie, E. R. (2007). Research Methods for Social Work by Rubin & Babbie (6th ed.)
 Baird, K. and Wang, H. (2010). Employee empowerment: extent of adoption and influential factors, Personnel Review, Vol. 39 No. 5, pp. 574-99.
 Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1994). Improving organisational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA.
 Bass, B. M., & Bass, R. (2008). The Bass handbook of leadership. Theory, research, and managerial applications. New York, NY: Free Press.
 Battles, B. (2005). Directing: Accomplishing objectives through delegation and motivation. Aircraft Maintenance Technology, 16(5), 38-41.
 Bhatti, K. K. & Qureshi, T. M. (2007). Impact of employee participation on job satisfaction, employee commitment and employee productivity, International Review of Business Research Papers, Vol.3 No.2 Pp. 54 â€“ 68
 Bohlander, G., Snell, S. & Sherman, A. (2001). Managing human resources. New York: South-Western Celldge.
 Brain, K. & Lewis, D. (2004). Exploring leadership preferences in multicultural workgroups: an Australian Pcase study, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 25 No. 3, pp. 263â€78.
 Brownell, J. (2008). Leading on land and sea: Competencies and context. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27, 137â€“150.
 Buchanan, L., & Oâ€™Connell, A. (2006). A brief histor of decision making. Harvard Business Reiew, 84(1), 32-41.
 Campbell, J. P., & Wiernik, B. M. (2015). The modeling and assessment of work performance. Annual Review of Organisational Psychology and Organisational Behaviour, 2, 47â€“74.
 Cardy, R. L. (2004). Performance management: concepts, skills, and exercises. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe
 Carsten, M. K., Uhl-Bien, M., West, B. J., Patera, J. L. & Mcgregor, R. (2010). Exploring social constructions of followership: A qualitative study. The leadership Quarterly, 2221, 543-562
 Castro, C. B., PeriÃ±an, M. M. V. & Bueno, J.C.C. (2008). Transformational leadership and followersâ€™ attitudes: the mediating role of psychological empowerment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 19 No. 10, pp. 1842-1863.
 Cheong, M., Spain, S. M., Yammarino, F. J., & Yun, S. (2016). Two faces of empowering leadership: Enabling and burdening. The Leadership Quarterly, 27(4), 602â€“616
 Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education (6th ed.). New York: Routledge.
 Cordery, J. L., Morrison, D., Wright, B. M., & Wall, T. D. (2010). The impact of autonomy and task uncertainty on team performance: A longitudinal field study. Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 31: 240-258.
 Cornelis, I., Van Hiel, A., De Cremer, D., & Mayer, D. M. (2013). When leaders choose to be fair: Follower belongingness needs and leader empathy influences leadersâ€™ adherence to procedural fairness rules. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 605-613
 Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
 Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: qualitative, Quantitative, and mixed methods Approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
 Creswell, J. W., & Clark, P. V. L. (2007). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. London: Sage Publications Ltd.
 Creswell J.W., Klassen A.C., Clark, P. V.L, & Smith K.C. (2011). Best practices for mixed methods research in the health sciences. National Institutes of Health.
 De Hoogh, A. H., Greer, L. L., & Den Hartog, D. N. (2015). Diabolical dictators or capable commanders? An investigation of the differential effects of autocratic leadership on team performance. Leadership Quarterly, 26, 687-701.
 Dessler, G. (2006). Management principlesand practices for tomorrowâ€™s leaders. Florida International University: Prentice Hall
 De Toni, A., & Tonchia, S. (2001). Performance measurement systems - models, characteristics and measures. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 21(1-/2), 46-71
 Dionne, S. D., Yammarino, F. J., Atwater, L. E., & Spangler, W. D. (2004). Transformational leadership and team performance, Journal of Organisational Change Management, Vol. 17 No. 2, pp. 177-193.
 Edmondson, A. C., & Lei, Z. (2014). Psychological safety: The history, renaissance, and future of an interpersonal construct. Annual Review of Organisational Psychology and Organisational Behaviour, 1, 23-43.
 Evans, (2003). Hierarchy of evidence: a framework for ranking evidence evaluating healthcare interventions, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 12 (2003), pp. 77-84
 Fernandez, S. (2005). Developing and testing an integrative framework of public sector leadership: Evidence from the public education arena. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 15(2), 197-217.
 Fleih, F., & Abdul-Majid, F. (2005). Organisational behaviour in the management of educational institutions. Oman: Darmarch Publication
 Friedman, B. A., & Reed, L. J. (2007). Workplace Privacy: Employee Relations and Legal Implications of Monitoring Employee E-mail Use. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 19(2), 75â€“83.
 Gilley, J. W., & Maycunich, A. (2000). Organisational learning, performance, and change: An introduction to strategic HRD. Cambridge, MA: Perseus
 Gosselin, M. (2005). An empirical study of performance measurement in manufacturing firms. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 54 (5/6), pp. 419-437
 Griffin, M. A., Neal, A., & Parker, S. K. (2007). A new model of work role performance: Positive behaviour in uncertain and interdependent contexts. Academy of Management Journal, 50, 327-347.
 GÃ¼ngÃ¶r, P. (2011). The Relationship between reward management system and employee performance with the mediating role of motivation: A Quantitative Study on Global Banks, SciVerse ScienceDirect, Elsevier
 Hakala, D. (2008). How to measure employee performance, 16 ways. HR World Newsletter.
 Halpin, A.W. & Winer, B.J. (1957). A factorial study of the leader behavior descriptions, Research Monograph No. 88, Bureau of Business Research, pp. 30â€51.
 Heckl, D., Moormann, J. (2010) Process Performance Management. In: vom Brocke J., Rosemann M. (eds): Handbook on Business Process Management 2. International Handbooks on Information Systems (pp 115-135). Berlin: Springer.
 Hellriengel, D.J, Jackson, S. & Slocum Jr. (1999). Management, 8thedition, Cincinnati, South-western College Publishing.
 Helpdesk (2006): How to tell your boss to leave you in peace. TTG, Travel Trade Gazette, U.K. and Ireland, 45.
 Hemphill, J. & Coons, A. (1957). Development of the leader behavior description questionnaire, in Stogdill, R.M. and Coons, A.E. (Eds), Leader Behavior: Its Description and Measurement, Bureau of Business Research, pp. 6-38.
 Holt, S., & Marques, J. (2012). Empathy in leadership: Appropriate or misplaced? An empirical study on a topic that is asking for attention. Journal of Business Ethics, 105, 95-105
 Hughes, H., Ginnett, M. & Curphy, R. (1999), Leadership, McGraw-Hill, Singapore. p. 9.
 Jena, L.K., Pradhan, R.K. (2014). Deliverables towards HR Sustainability: A conceptual Review. European Journal of Business Management, 6(2)
 Johnson, R. B., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2004). Mixed methods research: A research paradigm whose time has come. Educational Researcher, 33(7), 14-26.
 Kaiser, R. B., & Overfield, D. V. (2010). Assessing flexible leadership as a mastery of opposites. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 62(2), 105â€“118.
 Kâ€™Aol G. O. (2015). The Effect of achievement-oriented leadership style on the performance of COYA Senior Managers in Kenya
 Karakas, F (2010). Spirituality and Performance in Organisations: A Literature Review, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 94, No. 1, pp. 89-106, 2010
 Kerns, C. D., & Ko, K. (2014). Managerial leadership competencies: A practice-oriented action role framework. International Leadership Journal, 6(1), 82-99
 Kim, H., & Yukl, G. (1995). Relationships of self-reported and subordinate-reported leadership behaviors to managerial effectiveness and advancement. Leadership Quarterly, 6, 361-377.
 Kinicki. A. & Kreitner. R. (2007). Organisational Behaviour. (7th ed.) McGraw-Hill Inc. New York
 Konczak, L.J., Damian, J. S., & Michael, L. T. (2000). Defining and Measuring Empowering Leader Behaviors: Development of an Upward Feedback Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2000, 60,301
 Krejcie, R.V., & Morgan, D.W., (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement.
 Lai, W., & Chen, C. (2011). Behavioral intentions of public transit passengers â€“ the roles of service quality, perceived value, satisfaction and involvement, Transport Policy, Vol. 18 No. 2, pp. 318-325.
 Lepak, D. P., Taylor, M. S., Tekleab, A. G., Marrone, J. A., & Cohen, D. J. (2007). An examination of the use of high-investment human resource systems for core and support employees. Human Resource Management,46, 223â€“246.
 Likert, R. (1961). New patterns of management. New York: McGraw-Hill
 Limsila, K., & Ogunlana, S. O. (2008). Performance and leadership outcome correlates of leadership styles and subordinate commitment. Engineering Construction & Architectural Management
 London, M. (2003). Job feedback: Giving, seeking and using feedback for performance improvement (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
 Loi, R., Lai, J. Y. M., & Lam, L. W. (2012). Working under a committed boss: A test of the relationship between supervisors' and subordinates' affective commitment. The Leadership Quarterly, 23, 466-475.
 Lorinkova, N. M., Pearsall, M. J., & Sims, H. P., Jr. (2013). Examining the differential longitudinal performance of directive versus empowering leadership in teams. Academy of Management Journal, 56(2), 573â€“596.
 Lovelace, K. J., Manz, C. C., & Alves, J. C. (2007). Work stress and leadership development: The role of self-leadership, shared leadership, physical fitness and flow in managing demands and increasing job control. Human Resource Management Review, 17(4), 374â€“387.
 Lumbasi G. W., Ouma C. A., & Kreitner. R., & Kinicki. A. (2007). Organisational Behaviour. (7th ed.) McGraw-Hill Inc. New York
 Lutgans, F. & Hodegtts, R (2004). Business (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
 Mahsud, R., Yukl, G., & Prussia, G. (2010). Leader empathy, ethical leadership, and relations-oriented behaviours as antecedents of leader-member exchange quality. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25, 561
 Martin S., Liao H., & Campbell E. M. (2013). Comparing empowering leadership and directive leadership on task proficiency and proactivity: a field experiment in the UAE. Acad. Manag. J. 56 1372â€“1395. 10.5465/amj.2011.0113
 Maynard, M. T. Gilson, L., & Mathieu, J. E. (2012). Empowermentâ€”Fad or Fab? A Multilevel Review of the Past Two Decades of Research, Journal of Management 38(4):1231-1281
 Maynard, Luciano, D;Innocenzo, Mathieu, J. E. & Dean (2014). Empowered to Perform: A Multilevel Investigation of the Influence of Empowerment on Performance in Hospital Units, Academy of Management 555 Pleasantville Road, Suite N200
 Mazrui, A. A. (2007). Pan-Africanism, democracy and leadership in Africa: the continuing legacy for the new millennium, Institute of Global Cultural Studies
 Md Abdur R., Anantharaman, R. N., Eze, U. C. & Md Wahid M. (2010). Empowerment Practices and Performance in Malaysia â€“ An Empirical Study. International Journal of Business and Management Vol 5 No1
 Mearns, K., Whitaker, S.M., & Flin, R. (2003). Safety climate, safety management practice and safety performance in offshore environments. Safety Science 41, 641-680
 Mehta, R., Dubinsky, A. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2003). Leadership style, motivation and performance in international marketing channels: An empirical investigation of the USA, Finland and Poland, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 37 no. 1/2, pp. 50-85.
 Meihem, Y. (2004). The Antecedents of Customer-Contact Employeesâ€™ Empowerment. Employee Relations, 26 (1), 72-93
 Meyerson, G., & Dewettinck, B. (2012). Effect of empowerment on employeeâ€™s performance. Advanced Research in Economic and Management Sciences, 2, 40-46. (3)
 Miner, J. B. (2005). Organisational behaviour 1: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.
 Mishra, J. M., Crampton, Suzanne M. (1998). Employee Monitoring: Privacy in the Workplace? Academic journal article SAM Advanced Management Journal
 Morgeson, F. P. (2005). The External Leadership of Self-Managing Teams: Intervening in the Context of Novel and Disruptive Events. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(3), 497â€“508
 Moynihan, D.P., & Ingraham, P.W. (2004). Integrative Leadership in the Public Sector a Model of Performance-Information Use. Administration & Society 36 (4): 427-453.
 Mone, E.M., & London, M. (2009). Employee engagement through effective performance management: A managerâ€™s guide. New York: Routledge.
 Mullins, L.J. (2006). Essentials of Organisational Behaviour, Prentice Hall, Harlow.
 Muchinsky, P. A. (2006). Psychology to Work: An introduction to industrial and organisational psychology, (8th ed.) Thomson South-Western.
 Neely, A. & Platts, (2005). The evolution of performance measurement research: Developments in the last decade and a research agenda for the next. International Journal of Operations & Production Management. Vol 25,
 Neuman, W. L. (2006). Social research methods:qualitative-quantitative approaches (6th ed.). Boston, Allyn-Bacon
 Newman, M. (2008). At the top, women still can't get a break from stereotypes. The Times Higher Education Supplement: THE, (1836), 8.
 Northouse, P. G. (2010). Leadership: Theory and practice (5th ed.). Thousand
Oaks, CA: Sage
 Northouse, P.G. (2012), Leadership: Theory and Practice, (6th ed.), Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA. Sage
 Northouse, P. G. (2013). Leadership: Theory & Practice. (7th ed.), Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
 Norris, S.E. (2008). An examination of self-leadership, Emerging Leadership Journeys, Vol. 1 No. 2, pp. 43-61.
 Pareek, U. & Rao, T.V. (2007), Designing and Managing Human Resource System, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt Ltd, New Delhi.
 Parmenter, D. (2009). Key Performance Indicators: Developing, Implementing, and Using Winning KPIs. New Jersey: Wiley
 Pellegrini, E. K., & Scandura, T. A. (2006). Leaderâ€“member exchange (LMX), paternalism, and delegation in the Turkish business culture: An empirical investigation. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(2), 264-279.
 Pierce, J. L., & Newstrom, J. W. (2006). Leaders and the leadership process. (4th ed.), McGraw Hill, New York.
 Richard, T. & Morrison, M. (2009), Challenges of performance management in contemporary scenarioâ€, Journal of Business and Psychology, Vol. 39 No.2, pp. 56-71.
 Robbins, S.P., & Judge, T.A. (2016). Essential of Organizational Behavior (13th ed.), New York, N.Y: Pearson.
 Rotberg, R. I. (2004). When states fail: Causes and consequences. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
 Rothmann, S. & Coetzer, E. P. (2003). The big five personality dimensions and job performance Journal of Industrial Psychology, 29 (1), 68-74
 Saeed, S., Yousafzai, S. Y., & Engelen, A. (2014). On cultural and macroeconomic contingencies of the entrepreneurial orientation-performance relationshipâ€, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol. 38 No. 2, pp. 255-290.
 Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2007). Research Methods for Business Students. (4th ed.) Financial Times Prentice Hall, Edinburgh Gate, and Harlow.
 Seibert, S. E., Wang, G., & Courtright, S. H. (2011). Antecedents and consequences of psychological and team empowerment in organisations: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(5), 981â€“1003.
 Shields, J. (2016), Managing Employee Performance and Reward Cambridge University Press
 Sims, Jr. H. P. A., Samer F. B., & Seokhwa, Y. (2009). When should a leader be directive or empowering? How to develop your own situational theory of leadership, Business Horizons 52, 149â€”158
 Smith, W. P., &Tabak, F. (2009). Monitoring employee e-mails: Is There Any Room for Privacy? Academy of Management Perspectives
 Sundstrom, E., McIntyre, M., Halfhill, T. R., & Richards, H. (2000). Work groups: From the Hawthorne studies to work teams of the 1990s and beyond. Group Dynamics, 4, 44â€“67
 Tandoh, V. C. (2011). Effect of Leadership Behaviours on Employee Performance in Guinness Ghana Breweries Limited. (Masterâ€™s thesis, KNUST)
 Taylor, M. (2013). Leadership Worldviews and Orientations. Unpublished Occasional Paper. Royal Roads University.
 Thompson, G., &Vecchio, R. P. (2009), Situational leadership theory: a test of three versions, Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 20 No. 5, pp. 837-848.
 Tohidi, H., & Jabbari, M. (2011). The aspects of empowerment of human resources. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences, pp.829 â€“ 83
 Tremblay, M. M., & Parent-Rocheleau, G. X. (2017). Good Things Are Not Eternal: How Consideration Leadership and Initiating Structure Influence the Dynamic Nature of Organisational Justice and Extra-Role Behaviours at the Collective Level, Journal of Leadership & Organisational Studies 25(2)
 Urbaniak, A. (2005). Giving others authority. SuperVision, 66(4), 3-5.
 Van Dierendonck, D. (2011). Servant Leadership: A Review and Synthesis
 Van Wart, M. (2003). Public-sector leadership theory: An assessment. Public Administration Review, 23(2), 214â€“228.
 Ward L., Grudnoff, L., Brooker, B., & Simpson, M. (2013). Teacher preparation to proficiency and beyond: Exploring the landscape. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 33, 68-80.
 Wang, P. & Rode, J.C. (2010). Transformational leadership and follower creativity: the moderating effects of identification with leader and organisational climate, Human Relations, Vol. 63 No. 8, pp. 1105-1128.
 Wang, H., Tsui, A., & Xin, K. (2011). CEO leadership behaviours, organisational performance, and employeesâ€™ attitudes. Leadership Quarterly, 22, 92-105
 Yammarino, F. J., & Bass, B. M. (1990). Long-term forecasting of transformational leadership and its effects among naval officers: Some preliminary findings. In K. E. Clark & M. B. Clark (Eds.), Measures of leadership (pp. 151â€“169).
 Yammarino, F. J., Dionne, S. D., Chun, J. U., & Dansereau, F. (2005). Leadership and levels of analysis: A state-of-the-science review. The Leadership Quarterly, 16,879â€“91
 Yukl, G. (2002). Leadership in organisations. (5th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
 Yukl, G. (2006). Leadership in Organisations, (6th ed.) Pearson Education
 Yulk, G. (2008). The importance of flexible leadership in the importance assessment and development of flexible leadership. Practitioner Forum Presented at the 23rd Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial-Organisational Psychology, pp1-6.
 Yukl, G. (2010). Leadership in Organisations, (7th ed.), Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
 Yukl, G. (2012). Effective leadership behaviour: What we know and what questions need more attention. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 26(4), 66â€“85
 Zikmund, W. G. (2003). Business research methods, (7th ed.), Mason, OH, Thompson/South-Western.