Chemical Composition Of Phytochemicals And Essential Oil Of Euphorbia Heterophylla
Volume 3 - Issue 11, November 2019 Edition
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Wellington, E.O, Peters, D. E, Onyeike, E.N.
Phytochemical, Euphorbia heterophylla, essential oil, HPLC, Gas chromatograph.
Introduction: Medicinal plants are very rich in bioactive source of drugs of traditional system of medicine, modern medicines, nutraceuticals, food supplements, folk medicines, pharmaceutical intermediates and chemical entities for synthetic drugs. E. heterophylla is widely used in folklore medicine for the treatment of several bacterial infections. In traditional system of medicine, aqueous extract or decoction of the leaves that is used to prepare food such as yam porridge or taken directly to "wash out the bowels" or as a purgative. Objective: To qualitatively and quantitatively determine the phytochemical and essential oil composition of the aerial parts of E. heterophylla. Methodology: Phytochemical and essential oil screening and quantification of the aerial parts of E. heterophylla were carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). Results: Phytochemicals characterized include 719.19mg/100g alkaloid (euphorbin-A and C), 376.20mg/100g flavonoid (quercitrin and myricitrin ), 139.80mg/100g saponin (sapogenin, and saponine), 80.60mg/100g glycoside (rutin and kaempferol-3-glucopyranoside), 33.93 sterol (sistosterol and campesterol), 25.32 phenolic acid (vanillic and protocatechuric acid), 19.32mg/100g isoflavan (daidzein and genistein), 6.11mg/100g anthocyanins (Cyaniding-3-(6,6â€™caffeonyl-p-hydroxybenzoylso and cyaniding-3-(6,6â€™dicaffeonylsophoroside)-5-glucos), 1.92mg/100g terpenoid (B-amyrin and clovandiol), 1.19mg/100g anthraquinones (2,3-dimethoxybenzoquinone and heterophylline), 1.72x10-1mg/100g lignan (seroisolariciresino and epipinoresinol) in decreasing order and 100% essential oil. Conclusion: The presence of these essential oil and phytochemical constituents in E. heterophylla could be responsible for the therapeutic activities elicited by the plant.
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