IJARP SJIF(2018): 4.908

International Journal of Advanced Research and Publications!

Pharmacognostic Investigation Of Dried Powdered Leaves Of Traditional Medicinal Plant Microdesmis Puberula Used For Stopping Excessive Bleeding Of Women During Menstruation In Sierra Leone

Volume 3 - Issue 1, January 2019 Edition
[Download Full Paper]

Author(s)
Lahai Koroma, T.B.R. Yormah, L.M. Kamara, G.M.T. Robert
Keywords
Pharmacognosy, therapeutic efficacy, phytochemicals, menorrhagia, herbal medicine and mineral analysis
Abstract
Pharmacognostic investigation was carried out on dried powdered Leaves of traditional medicinal plant Microdesmis puberula used for stopping excessive bleeding of women during menstruation in Eastern Province of Sierra Leone. The powdered stem bark was found to be dark green in colour with a characteristic grass flavour and bitter taste indicating that the plant organ investigated contained alkaloids. Some constituents gave fluorescence colour changes with the reagents 1M NaOH(aq.), 1M NaOH(alc.), Ammonia, 50% HCl, and 50% HNO3. Fluorescence analysis has been reported to be one of the parameters for pharmacognostic evaluation of crude drugs in traditional medicinal plants. The results phytochemical screening indicates that carbohydrates, alkaloid, flavonoids, tannins, proteins, sterols/terpenes and saponins are present in the ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts. The petroleum ether and acetone extracts gave the least concentration of the phytoconstituents investigated. The detection of the above secondary plant metabolites support the use of the plant in traditional medicine Elemental analysis on the dried powdered Leaves of Microdesmis puberula was performed with a Niton XL3t GOLD + Hand held X-ray Fluorescence (Thermo Fisher). The Niton Hand held XRF Instrument uses Ag-anode X-ray tube with a voltage of 50kV and equipped with a Si-drift detector (SDD). Accurate energy and efficiency calibrations of the spectrometer were made using a certified reference material – SRM 1573a – Tomato Leaves supplied by the International Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, Austria. The spectrum acquisition time was 480sec for the sample and the dead time was around 50%. A total of fifteen elements (K, Ca, Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, and Sc) were investigated using EDXRF. The results indicated that plant organ contained large amounts of nutrients and were rich in K (31614 ± 178.00 ppm), Ca (10872 ± 147.00 ppm), Mg (8122 ± 1434.00ppm), Al (5727 ± 258.00 ppm) and Fe (2670.7± 25.46ppm). The other elements present in smaller quantities were Ti (875 ± 21.00 ppm), Zr (129.36 ±1.29 ppm), Mn (126.34 ± 13.31 ppm), Zn (119.53 ± .33ppm), Sr (68.88 ± 0.94ppm), Sc (68.00 ±12.00ppm), Rb (45.01 ± 1.00 ppm), Cu (23.57 ± 4.46ppm), V (11.99 ± 7.50 ppm) and Mo (4.46 ± 0.81ppm). The presence of potassium, iron, calcium and magnesium in the dried powdered Leaves of Microdesmis puberula plant also support the use of the plant in controlling excessive blood loss during menstruation in women.
References
[1]. Macfoy CA, Samai AM (1983). Medicinal plants in Pujehun District of Sierra Leone. J. Ethopharm. 8(2): 215-223.

[2]. Samai SK, Barnish G (1992). Some medicinal plant receipts of the Mende of Sierra Leone. 1st ed. Bunumbu Press, Bo, Sierra Leone. pp. 85-93

[3]. Daziel JM (1937). Useful plants of West Tropical Africa. Appendix to the flora of West Tropical Africa. Crown agents, London, pp. 28-32.

[4]. Dounias, E., 2008. Microdesmis puberula Hook. F. ex Planch. In: Plant resources of Tropical Africa 11(1):

[5]. Esonu, B.O., J.C. Azubuike and H.O. Ukwu, 2004. Evaluation of M. puberula leaf meal as feed ingredient in laying hen diets. Int. J. Poultry Science., 3(2): 96-99.

[6]. Okany, C.C, I.O. Ishola and R.B. Ashorobi, 2012. Evaluation of analgesic and antistress potential of methanolic stem wood extract of M. puberula Hook .f. ex. Planch (Pandaceae) in mice. International Journal of Applied Research in the Natural Products, 5(3): 30-336

[7]. Ajibesin, K.K., B.A. Ekpo, D.N. Bala, E.E. Essien and S.A. Adesanya, 2008. Ethnobotanical survey of Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 115: 387-488.

[8]. Zamblé, A., D. Yao, F. Martin-Nizard, S. Sahpez, M. Offoumou, P. Duriez, C. Brunet and F. Bailleul, 2006. Vasoactivity and antioxidant properties of M. keayana roots. J. Ethnopharmacology., 104: 263-269.

[9]. Roumy, V., T. Hennebelle, A. Zamble, Y.J. Zamble, S. Sahpaz and F. Bailleul, 2008. Characterization and identification of spermine and spermidine derivatives in Microdesmis. keayana and Microdesmis. Puberula roots by electrospray ionisation, tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. European Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 14(2): 111-115.

[10]. Tropical Plants Database, Ken Fern. tropical.theferns.info: 2018-07-07.

[11]. Siddiqui, Hakim MA. Format for the pharmacopoeia analytical standards of compound formulation, workshop on standardization of Unani drugs, (appendix), 24‐25 January. New Delhi: Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM); 1995.

[12]. Kokoski J, Kokoski R, Salma FJ. Fluorescence of powdered vegetable drugs under ultraviolet radiation. J Am Pharm Ass 1958; 47:715-717

[13]. Tatiya A, Surana S, Bhavsar S, Patil D, Patil Y. Pharmacognostic and preliminary phytochemical investigation of Eulophia herbacea Lindl. Tubers (Orchidaceae). Asian Pac J Trop Disease 2012; 2(Suppl 1):S50-55.

[14]. Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods. Edn 2. London: Chapman & Hall, 1973.
[15]. Kokate CK. Practical Pharmacognosy, Edn 4, Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi, 107-111, 1997.

[16]. Zhao Z, Liang Z, Guo P. Macroscopic identification of Chinese medicinal materials: Traditional experiences and modern understanding. J Ethnopharmacol 2011; 131:556-561.

[17]. Khandelwal KR: Practical Pharmacognosy, Nirali Prakashan, 1995, 149-155.

[18]. Trease E.G. and Evans W.C. (1978) Pharmacognosy 1978, 11th Edition, Balliere Tindall, London 115‐222.

[19]. Sazada S, Arti V, Ayaz A, Faraha J, Maheswari MK (2009): Preliminary Phytochemical analysis of Some Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Adv. In Biological Res., 2009; 3(5‐6): 188‐5.

[20]. Kokate C.K., Purohit A.P. and Gokhale S.B. (2006): Pharmacognosy 34th Ed. 2006 Nirali Prakashan, Pune, India.

[21]. Nayak BS, Isitor G, Davir EM and Pillai GK. (2007): The evidence based Wound Healing Activity of Lawsonia inermis Linn. Phytotherapy Research 2007; 29: 829.

[22]. Queralt I, Ovejero M, Carvalho ML, Marques AF, Liabres JM. Quantitative determination of essential and trace element content of medicinal plants and their infusions by XRF and ICP techniques. X Ray Spectrom 2005; 34: 213-217.

[23]. Shendkar CD, Chandrachood PS, Pawar AB, Lavate SM, deshpande NR. Quantitative estimation of macro, micronutrients and trace elements by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) from Achyranthes aspera Linn. Int J Chem Tech Res 2011; 3(2) : 610-613.

[24]. IOM. Dietary reference intakes: Elements. Available from: http://www.iom.edu.

[25]. WHO 1992. Expert committee on specification for pharmaceuticals preparation. WHO technical report series 823, Report Geneva WHO 32. pp: 44-52, 75-76.

[26]. Gjorgieva, D., Kadifkova-Panovska, T., Baeva, K. and Stafilov, T. 2011. Metalic trace elements in medicinal plants from Macedonia. Middle-East J. Sci. Res. 7: 109-114.

[27]. Cobanoglu, U., Demir, H., Sayir, F., Duran, M. and Mergan, D. 2010. Some mineral, trace element and heavy metal concentrations in lung cancer. Asian Pacific J. Cancer Prev. 11: 1383-1388.

[28]. Nayak BS, Isitor G, Davir EM and Pillai GK. (2007). The Evidence Based Wound Healing Activity Of Lawsonia Inermis Linn. Phytotherapy Research 2007; 29: 829.

[29]. Barceloux, G. D. 1999. Manganese, Nickel, Clin. Toxicol. 37: 239-258 and 293-309.

[30]. Guthrie HA: Introductory Nutrition, 3rd Ed. Saint Louis, The C.V. Moshby Co. 1975:1975.

[31]. Bollin Se et al.,: The structure and Metabolism of the Pancreatic Islets. Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1964.

[32]. Shorr E, Carter AC. (1952) usefulness of Strontium as an adjuvant to calcium in the remineralization of the skeleton in man Bull Hosp Joint Dis. 1952 Apr:13(1):59-66.